Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Ernest Hilgard, Vaginal Lubrication, Hallucinogen

19 views11 pages
Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Psychology 1
Chapter 6: States of Consciousness
State of consciousnessa pattern of subjective experience, a way of experiencing
internal and external events
Altered state of consciousnessvariations from our normal working state (dreams)
THE PUZZLE OF CONSCIOUSNESS
Consciousnessour moment-to-moment awareness of our environment and
ourselves
Characteristics of consciousness:
1. Subjective and privateother people cannot directly know what is reality for
you, nor can you enter directly into their experiences
2. Dynamic (ever-changing)we drift in and out of various states throughout
each day, we tend to experience consciousness as a continuously flowing
“stream” of mental activity
3. Self-reflective and central to our sense of selfthe mind is aware of its own
consciousness, you can reflect on the fact that “you” are the one who is
conscious of what you are focused on
4. Intimately connected with the process of selective attentionfocuses
conscious awareness on some stimuli to the exclusion of others; we focus on
the “spotlight” things
Self-reportpeople describe their inner experiences
Physiological measuresestablish the correspondence between bodily states and
mental processes
Behavioral measuresincluding performance on special tasks
Freud’s three levels of awareness
1. The conscious mind contains thoughts, perceptions, and other mental events
of which we are currently aware
2. Preconscious mental events are outside current awareness, but can easily be
recalled under certain conditions
3. Unconscious events cannot be brought into conscious awareness under
ordinary circumstances. Some unconscious content is kept out of conscious
awareness because it would arouse anxiety, guilt, or negative emotions
Cognitive psychologists reject the notion of an unconscious mind driven by
instinctive urges and repressed conflicts. They view conscious and
unconscious mental life as complementary forms of information processing
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Psychology 2
Controlled (effortful) processingthe voluntary use of attention and conscious effort
more flexible and open to change
Automatic processingactivities can be performed with little or no conscious effort
offers speed and economy of effort
Divided attentionthe ability to perform more than one activity at the same time
Many theorists propose that the mind consists of separate but interacting info
processing modules. Our subjective experience of “unitary” consciousness arises
from the integrated output of these modules
CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS: OUR DAILY BIOLOGICAL CLOCKS
Circadian rhythmsEvery 24h, our body temperature, certain hormonal secretions, and
other bodily functions undergo a rhythmic change that affects our mental alertness and
readies our passage back and forth between states of wakefulness and sleep
Most circadian rhythms are regulated by the brains suprachiasmatic nuclei
(SCN), which are located in the hypothalamus and acts as the brains clock
SCN neurons link to the tiny pineal gland which secretes melatonin, a hormone
that has a relaxing effect on the body
SCN neurons become active during daytime and reduce the pineal gland’s
secretion of melatonin, raising body temperature an heightening alertness
At night SCN neurons are inactive, allowing melatonin levels to increase and
promoting relaxation and sleepiness
Eyes have neural connections to the SCN. After a nights sleep, the light of day
increases SCN activity and resets your 24-hour biological clock
Free-running circadian rhythmswhen there is no way of knowing what time of
day it is, people drift into a longer natural cycle of about 24.2-24.8 hours
Influence our tendency to be morning people or night people
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)a cyclic tendency to become psychologically
depressed during certain months of the year
Jet lag is a sudden circadian disruption caused by flying across several time
zones in one dayoften causes insomnia, decreased alertness, and poorer
performance until the body readjusts
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Psychology 3
SAD, jet lag, and night shiftwork involve environmental disruptions of circadian
rhythms. Treatments for circadian disruptions include controlling exposure to
light, oral melatonin, and regulating daily activity schedules
SLEEP AND DREAMING
Approx. every 90 minutes while asleep, we cycle through different stages in
which our brain activity and other physiological responses change in a generally
predictable way
Beta wavesa brain-wave pattern of 15-30 cycles per second that is characteristic of
humans who are in an alter waking state
Alpha wavesa brain pattern of 8-12 cycles per second that is characteristic of humans
in a relaxed waking state
Stages of sleep
Stage 1: as sleep begins, your brain-wave pattern becomes more irregular, and
slower theta waves increase. This is a form of light sleep where you can be
easily awakened, you usually only spend a couple minutes here and may
experience images or sudden body jerks
Stage 2: as sleep becomes deeper, sleep spindlesperiodic one- to two-second
bursts of rapid brain wave activitybegin to appear. Your muscles are more
relaxed, your breathing and heart rate are slower and you are harder to awaken
Stage 3: sleep deepens and is marked by the appearance of very slow and large
delta waves. As time passes, they occur more often
Stage 4: when delta waves dominate the EEG pattern. Together stage 3 and 4
are often referred to as slow-wave sleep. Your body is relaxed, activity in various
parts of your brain has decreased and you are hard to awaken
Within 60-90 minutes of going to sleep, you will have completed a cycle of stages
1-2-3-4-3-2
REM sleep
Every half minute or so, bursts of muscular activity cause sleeps eyeballs to
vigorously move back and forth beneath their closed eyelidsrapid eye
movements
When people are awoken during this time they almost always can report a dream
Physiological arousal may increase to daytime levelsheart rate quickens,
breathing becomes more rapid and irregular, and brain wave activity
resembles that of active wakefulness, men have penile erections and women
experience vaginal lubrication which is NOT the cause of sexual arousal
REM sleep paralysisvoluntary muscles contract and muscles in the arms,
legs, and torso lose tone and become relaxed. Sometimes called paradoxical
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

State of consciousness a pattern of subjective experience, a way of experiencing internal and external events. Altered state of consciousness variations from our normal working state (dreams) Consciousness our moment-to-moment awareness of our environment and ourselves. Physiological measures establish the correspondence between bodily states and mental processes. Some unconscious content is kept out of conscious awareness because it would arouse anxiety, guilt, or negative emotions. Cognitive psychologists reject the notion of an unconscious mind driven by instinctive urges and repressed conflicts. They view conscious and unconscious mental life as complementary forms of information processing. Controlled (effortful) processing the voluntary use of attention and conscious effort more flexible and open to change. Automatic processing activities can be performed with little or no conscious effort offers speed and economy of effort. Divided attention the ability to perform more than one activity at the same time. Many theorists propose that the mind consists of separate but interacting info processing modules.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.