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Chapter 10

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Bulimia Nervosa, Rape Myth, Classical Conditioning


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
John Campbell
Chapter
10

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Chapter 10 – Motivation and Emotion
Motivation – process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goal directed behaviour
Perspectives on Motivation
Instinct Theory and Modern Evolutionary Psychology
Instinct (fixed action pattern) – an inherited characteristic, common to all members of a species, that automatically
produces a particular response when the organism is exposed to a particular stimulus
Theories faded due to circular reasoning (People are greedy. Why? Because greed is an instinct. Why? Because
people are greedy.)
Modern evolutionary psychologists propose that many motives have evolutionary underpinnings
Homeostasis and Drive Theory
Homeostasis – a state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain
Requires a sensory mechanism for detecting changes in internal environment, a response system that can restore
equilibrium, and a control centre that receives information from sensors
Drive theory – physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives, states of internal tension that motivate an
organism that reduce this tension
Clark Hull proposes that reducing drives is the ultimate goal of motivated behaviour
Flaws in theory found in certain behaviours, such as when people skip meals to diet (increases rather than decreases
state of arousal)
Incentive and Expectancy Theories
Incentives – environmental stimuli that pull an organism toward a goal
Modern incentive theorists emphasize the pull of external stimuli and how stimuli with high incentive value can
motivate behaviour, even in the absence of biological need
Expectancy x value theory – goal directed behaviour is jointly determined by two factors: the strength of the
person’s expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a goal, and the value the individual places on the goal
(incentive value)
Motivation = expectancy x incentive value
Extrinsic motivation – performing an activity to obtain an external reward or to avoid punishment
Intrinsic motivation – performing an activity for its own sake (enjoyment of the activity)
Overjustification hypothesis – giving people extreme rewards to perform activity that they intrinsically enjoy may
overjustify that behaviour and reduce intrinsic motivation
Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories
View motivation within a broader context of personality development and functioning, but take radically different
approaches
Freud believed that most behaviour resulted from a never-ending battle between unconscious impulses struggling for
release and psychological defenses used to keep them under control
Abraham Maslow believed that psychology’s perspectives ignored a key motive: our striving for personal growth
Deficiency needs – concerned with physical and social survival
Growth needs – motivate us to develop our potential
Proposed concept of need hierarchy, a progression of needs containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth
needs at the top
Physiological safety belongingness and love esteem cognitive aesthetic self-actualization (need to
fulfill our potential, ultimate human motive)
Can only focus on needs of highest level if bottom levels are satisfied
Hunger and Weight Regulation
The Physiology of Hunger
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Metabolism – body’s rate of energy utilization
Two-thirds of energy used goes to support basal metabolism, the resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells
Immediate energy supply information interacts with other signals to regulate food intake (hunger not necessarily
linked to immediate energy needs)
Homeostatic mechanisms are designed to prevent people from running low on energy in the first place (organisms
will not wait until last second to eat)
Many researches believe in a set point, an internal physiological standard, around which body weight is regulated (if
weight is altered, homeostatic mechanisms will return body close to original weight)
Body has long term signals that adjust appetite and metabolism:
Signals that start and terminate a meal
Hunger not triggered by empty stomach
People with nerves cut to stomach or stomach surgically removed still reported feelings of hunger
Sensors in hypothalamus and liver monitor blood glucose concentrations
If glucose levels drop, liver converts stored nutrients back into glucose, producing a drop-rise glucose pattern
Humans display a temporary drop-rise glucose pattern prior to experiencing hunger
Walls of stomach and intestine stretch while eating, send nerve signals to brain to indicate fullness
Nutritionally rich food can produce full feeling quicker than equal volume of less nutritious food
Patients with removed stomachs can still experience satiety due to chemical signals
CCK (cholecystokinin) released into blood after eating, stimulates receptors that decrease eating
Signals that regulate general appetite and weight
Fat cells secrete leptin (hormone that decreases appetite) to regulate food intake and weight
Doesn’t directly cause fullness, but affects amount of satiety signals required
Obese people have ample leptin in blood due to fat mass, but brain appears insensitive to signals
Brain mechanisms
Many parts of brain play a role in regulating hunger and eating
Lateral hypothalamus triggers hunger
Ventromedial hypothalamus ends hunger
Both found to not directly affect only hunger, but other factors that would also affect it
Paraventricular nucleus (PVN) – cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate
or reduce appetite
When losing weight, less leptin secreted, transmitters for hunger become more active (explains why dieting causes
hunger)
Psychological Aspects of Hunger
Eating is positively reinforced by the good taste of food and negatively reinforced by hunger reduction
Beliefs about caloric content of food, and memory of when and how much we last ate also affect consumption
Amnesia patients accepted multiple lunches half four after each other, while non-amnesia did not
Attitudes, habits, and psychological needs also regulate intake
Women overestimate how thin they must be to meet men’s standards, while men overestimated how bulky they
must be
Environmental and Cultural Factors
Food availability is most obvious environmental regulator of eating
Food taste and variety powerfully regulate eating
Classical conditioning associates smell and sight of food with taste, triggering hunger
Obesity
Genes and environment
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