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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Motivation and Emotion.docx

12 Pages

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Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

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Chapter 11 Motivation and Emotion Instinct Theory and Evolutionary Psychology - Instinct: inherited predisposition to behave in specific and predictable way when exposed to particular stimulus - Instinct Theory: instincts motivate much of our behavior o Many faded because of little evidence and reliability on circular reasoning - Examining hereditary contributions to human motivation o How strong heredity accounts for differences in motivated behavior - Evolutionist say psychological motives have evolutionary purposes that are expressed through genes Homeostasis and Drive Theory - Homeostasis: state of internal physiological equilibrium that body strives to maintain o Need mechanism to detect change in internal environment o Need response system o Need control center to receive information and active response system  Function like thermostat - Drive Theory: physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives that motivate an organism to behave in ways to reduce the tension o Hull o Less influential now Incentive and Expectancy Theories - Incentives: environmental stimuli that pull organism toward goal - Incentive theory focus on external stimuli that motivate behavior o High incentive value can motivate behavior o More in common with classical conditioning - Expectancy Theory include value of incentives but take cognitive too o Expectancy x value theory(expectancy theory): goal-directed behavior is jointly determined by 2 factors  Strength of person’s expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a goal  Value individual places on goal  Incentive value o Motivation = expectancy x incentive value - Extrinsic motivation: performing activity to obtain external reward or avoid punishment - Intrinsic motivation: performing activity for its own sake - Overjustification hypothesis: giving people rewards to perform activity that they enjoy intrinsically may overjustify the behavior and reduce intrinsic motivation Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theory - View motivation within broader context of personality development and function - Psychoanalytic theory: behavior results from battle between unconscious impulses and psychological defenses trying to keep them under control o Freud - Modern Psychodynamic theory: with conscious mental processes, unconscious motive and tensions guide how we act and feel - Maslow distinguished between deficiency needs and growth needs o Deficiency needs: concerned with physical and social survival o Growth needs: motivate us to develop our potential o Proposed need hierarchy: progression of needs containing deficiency needs at bottom and growth needs at top  We first satisfy deficiency needs and work our way to top o Self-actualization: need to fulfill our potential  Ultimate human motive - Self-determination theory: 3 fundamental psychological needs o Competence: human need to master new challenges o Autonomy: people experience action as result of free choice o Relatedness: desire to form bonds with others o Made by Deci and Ryan o People most fulfilled when all three are met o But when not met, consequences for psychological and physical Physiology of Hunger - Metabolism: body’s rate of energy utilization - Hunger not necessarily linked to immediate energy needs - Homeostatic mechanisms designed to prevent you from running low on energy - No set point but as we gain or lose weight, homeostatic mechanism kick in to make it harder for us to keep losing or gaining weight - Glucose: key nutrient o Major source of immediately usable fuel o Large portion transferred to liver and fat where stored o When low glucose levels in blood, liver puts glucose back in  Create drop-rise glucose pattern  May contain information that help brain regulate hunger - Stomach and intestinal distention: signals that tell us to end meal o Wall of organ stretch as food fills up  Sends signal to brain - Intestines also release several hormones (peptides) that terminate meal o CCK released into bloodstream by small intestine o Travels to brain o Stimulate receptors to decrease eating - Fat cells regulate food intake and weight by secreting leptin o Leptin: hormone that decrease appetite  As gain fat, leptin secreted into blood, reaches brain, signals to decrease appetite  Does not directly make us feel full but regulate by increasing potency of the other signals o Experiment with obese mice - Brain mechanisms o Use to think 2 centers in hypothalamus controlled eating  Lateral hypothalamus = hunger on center  Ventromedial hypothalamus = hunger off center o Now, think many pathways involved  Paraventricular nucleus: cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite  When receptor sites activated, feel hungry o When leptin reaches hypothalamus, inhibit activity of neurons that release the receptors for PVN  Appetite is reduced Psychological aspects of Hunger - Fallon and Rozin researched why food restriction stems from social pressures o University women overestimate how thin they have to be for male preferences  Think they are usually heavier than ideal o Men overestimate how bulky they have to be  Think they are close to idea o Therefore, men are usually satisfied but women put pressure on them to lose weight - Objectification theory: Western culture teaches women to view their bodies as objects o Fredrickson and Roberts o Leads to eating restriction and disorders - Environmental and Cultural Factors o Food availability o Food taste and variety o Food cues  Smell and sight can trigger hunger o Eat more when dining with other people o More comfortable with familiar food o Culture usually decides when, how, what to eat - Obesity o Controversy on what causes it o Maybe obese people eat to cope with stress or react more strongly to food cues - Genes and environment o Genes influence metabolic rate and tendency to store energy as fat or lean tissue o Combined effect of subset of genes that increase risk of obesity o Hills and Peters says that these environmental factors also contribute  Abundance of cheap fast food  Cultural emphasis in supersizing for getting best value  Technological advances that decrease physical activity - Dieting and Weight Loss o A lot of weight gain makes it hard to exercise a lot o Dieting slows down metabolism  But there is some controversy around this o Combining healthy eating with exercise has greater chance of success Sexual Motivation - People have sex because… o Reproduce o Obtain and give pleasure o Express love o Foster intimacy o Build one’s ego o Fulfill one’s duty o Conform to peer pressure o Get over broken relationship o Earn money - Sexual behavior- patterns and changes o Kinsey found…  Cohabit= most sexually active, then married, then single  Men and women have sex equally  Men fantasize about sex more o Men have first sex 1-2 years earlier than females o Trend becoming sexual activity at younger age  Some findings though say premarital trends leveling off and possible reversing Physiology of Sex - Masters and Johnson said people go through 4-stage sexual response cycle o 1. Excitement phase  Arousal builds rapidly  Blood flow increases around genital organs  Cause them to swell o Called vasocongestion  2. Plateau phase  Continue to build until trigger orgasm  3. Orgasm phase  Males: rhythmic contractions of internal organs and muscle around urethra project semen  Females: rhythmic contractions of outer third vagina  4. Resolution phase: arousal decrease rapidly and genital organs return to normal  MALES: During they go through Refractory phase: cant have another orgasm  FEMALES can have multiple orgasms before going into resolution phase - Hormonal Influences o Hypothalamus controls pituitary gland o Pituitary gland controls hormones called gonadotropins o These hormones affect rate genitals release androgens (sex hormones for males) and estrogens (sex hormones for females) o Sex hormones direct development of male and female sex characteristics (organizational effect)  For male, embryo gets testes 8 weeks  Testes release sex hormones to produce male genital, reproductive, brain, and organ development  Later when reach puberty, sex hormones increase  For female, make ovaries  At puberty hypothalamus stimulates release of sex hormones on cyclical basis o Activational effect that stimulate sexual desire and behavior  Begin at puberty when genitals start to secrete sex hormones  Males have relatively constant secretion  Females follow a cycle o In both men and women, androgens have primary influence on sexual desire  Baseline of certain hormones needed to maintain sexual desire Psychology of Sex - Sexual fantasy o Can trigger genital erection and orgasm - Desire, Arousal, Sexual Dysfunciton o Some lack desire to have sex o Some have difficulty becoming or staying aroused o Sexual dysfunction: chronic, impaired sexual functioning that distresses a person  can be caused by injuries, disease, drug effects or psychological effects  Performance anxiety can cause this too - Culture and Environmental Influences o Heiman researched genital arousal and self-reported arousal  Both genders showed strongest arousal when stories focused on female character and she initiated sex o Social Learning theory: people learn through observation  Men who view porn that has rape myths, more likely to treat women as objects and be sexually aggressive o Catharsis principle: inborn aggressiveness and sexual impulse builds up and have to release this tension  Watching porn or violent movies decrease the sexually aggressive behavior towards women  Freud o Controversy around the two principles though o Donnerstein, Berkowitz  effects of porn  Those who watched the rape myth film increased aggression  In general, those who watched porn had increased aggression  Porn promotes that sex is impersonal o Increase aggressive behavior toward women o Decrease satisfaction with own partners Sexual Orientation - Sexual orientation: one’s emotional and erotic preference for partners of particular sex - Determinants of Sexual Orientation o Early Views  Thought that homosexual and heterosexual males differ in sex hormones  Psychodynamic view proposed that homosexuality develop when grow up with week father and seductive mother  Conditioned response as have sexual urges in presence of same-sex peers o Bell researched this and concluded  Only one notable pattern: even in childhood, homosexual people felt that they were somehow different from their other peers o Some think they have genetic roots  Bailey and Pillard found that closer the genetic relatedness, higher the concordance rate of sexual orien
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