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Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Personality.docx

11 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 1000
Professor
Terry Biggs

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Description
Chapter 14 - Personality: ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that characterize a person’s response to life situations - 3 characteristics of personality o Components of identity that is unique to a person o Behavior viewed as caused by internal rather than environmental factors o Perceived organization and structure PSYCHODYNAMIC VIEW - Theories look for causes of behavior in internal forces and how they usually conflict with each other FREUD - Vienna - Studied with Jean Charcot o Charcot treating patients with conversion hysteria o Observed that the symptoms were because of painful memories and feelings  Convinced Freud that unconscious influence behavior greatly - Book = the interpretation of dreams - Thought personality as energy system o Instinctual drive generate psychic energy  Powers mind and constantly presses for release - 3 types of mental events o Conscious  Mental events presently aware of o Preconscious  Mental events unaware at the moment but can be called into conscious awareness o Unconscious  Biggest part  Anything that lies in our unconscious - 3 structures of personality that all interact with each other o Id  Unconscious mind  Innermost core  Only structure present at birth  Source of psychic energy  Operates according to pleasure principle  Pleasure principle: drive for instant need gratification o Ego  Develops to have direct contact with reality  Reality principle: egos tendency to take reality into account and act in rational fashion in satisfying needs  Looks at reality to decide when and how id can discharge its impulses  Balancing act between superego and id  Anxiety motivates ego to deal with problem at hand o Superego  Last to develop  Age 4-5  Moral  Values and ideals of society  After development, self-control takes over the reward/punishment way of teaching  Moralistic goals over realistic ones  Tries to block gratification permanently - Defense Mechanisms: unconscious process where the ego prevents the expression of anxiety-arousing impulses or allows them in disguised forms o Ego resort to this when realistic strategies are ineffective o Usually unaware they are using this o Excessive reliance= cause of maladaptive/dysfunctional behavior - Types of defense mechanisms o Repression: anxiety-arousing impulse/memories pushed back into unconscious  May be released indirectly o Sublimation: repressed impulse released in form of socially acceptable behavior o Denial: refusal to acknowledge anxiety-arousing aspects o Displacement: impulse repressed and directed to a safer target o Intellectualization: emotion repressed and situation dealt as intellectually interesting event o Projection: impulse repressed and projected to other people o Rationalization: construct false but plausible explanation for behavior/event that already happened o Reaction formation: impulse repressed and psychic energy released in exaggerated expression of opposite behavior - Psychosexual development o Children go through a series of psychosexual stages o Id tendencies focused on erogenous zones o Deprivation or overindulgence during stages can cause fixation  Fixation: state when arrested in psychosexual development and instinct focused on particular psychic theme o Part of Freud’s theory that was criticized the most - Stages of Psychosexual development o Oral: 0-2  Erogenous zone: mouth  Key task: weaning o Anal: 2-3  EZ: anus  KT: toilet training o Phallic: 4-6  EZ: genitals  KT: resolve Oedipus complex o Latency: 7- puberty  EZ: none  KT: develop social relationships o Genital: puberty on  EZ: genitals  KT: develop mature social and sexual relationships - Research on psychoanalytic theory o Tested through case studies and clinical observations o Wegner: tested if wishes during day appear in dreams  University students  Suppressed targets appeared in dreams more than unsuppressed targets o Now, able to study the brain activity so able to test Freud with greater accuracy EVALUATE PSYCHANALYTIC THEORY - Criticisms of Psychoanalytic theory o Many propositions haven’t held up under research o Hard to test  Some are untestable  Too many implications for the results - Neoanalysts: disagreed with parts of Freud’s theory so developed own theories o Thought Freud didn’t put enough emphasis on social and cultural factors  Thought stressed infantile sexuality too much o Freud laid too much emphasis on the influence of events of childhood in adult personality - Erikson: through personality development continued throughout life o Didn’t just stop at childhood like how Freud thought - Adler: Humans motivated by social interest (desire to advance welfare of others) o Thinking of others o General motive in life = striving for superiority  Drives people to compensate for their defects (inferiority complex) and strive for a better life - Jung: developed analytic psychology o Humans don’t just have personal unconscious (made by life experience) but also collective unconscious (made by history of human race) o Archetypes: inherited tendencies to interpret experiences in certain ways  Driven by memories accumulated by human race - Klein, Kernberg, Mahler, Kohut: object relations: focus on image people form of themselves and other people because of early experience with caregivers o Image becomes lens the person sees other people throughout lives o Images of themselves often create self-fulfilling prophecies o Attachment theory = outgrowth of object relations approach  Can relate early attachment experience to later adult relationships HUMANISITIC PERSPECTIVE - Emphasize individuals inborn strive and potential for self-actualization o Self-actualization: total realization of one’s potential CARL ROGERS - Self theory o Believed behavior is reaction to immediate conscious experience of self and environment o If force that direct behavior is not influenced by environment then direct us to self-actualization - Central concept = self o Self: organized set of perceptions and believes about oneself  Direct behavior  Creates perceptions - As child, can’t tell difference between themselves and environment o Self-concept develops in response to life experiences - When self-concept developed, want to maintain it o Develop need for self-consistency and congruence o If different then evoke threat and anxiety  If react adaptively = modify his self-concept or distort reality (explain the behavior)  If react badly = problems in living o To maintain it, also behave in ways so that people will respond to them in self-confirming fashion - Degree of congruence between self-concept and experience show how one’s level of adjustment is o More inflexible a person’s self-concept is, less open to experience, more maladjusted they will be - Born with innate need for positive regard o Need for positive regard: need for acceptance, sympathy, and love from others  Unconditional positive regard: communicated attitude of unconditional acceptance of another person  Conveys person’s intrinsic worth  Conditional positive regard: love given based on how child behaves o Also develop need for positive self-regard  Need for positive self-regard: innate need to feel good about ourselves o Lack of unconditional positive regard foster development of conditions of worth  Conditions of worth: dictate when we approve or disapprove ourselves - Fully functioning persons o People who achieved self-actualization o Fairly free of conditions of worth  Accept experiences as they are - Research on self o 2 topics mainly being researched  Development of self-esteem and effects  Roles played by self-enhancement and self-consistency motives o Self-esteem: how positively or negatively we feel about ourselves  Levels seem to be stable across development  High self-esteem = less susceptible to social pressure, fewer problems, happier with lives…  Too high is bad o If threatened, may react aggressively to protect self-esteem  Poor self-esteem = more prone to psychological problems  Increase self-esteem by unconditional acceptance/love  Failure is more damaging than success o Self-verification: need to preserve self-concept by maintaining self- consistency and congruence  University students – only remember adjectives that are consistent with their self-concept  Seek out self-confirming relationships  More likely to be in relationships that agree with the image they have of themselves o Self-enhancement: tendency to regard themselves positively  Attribute success to own ability and effort  Attribute failure to environmental factors  Rate themselves better than average in any socially desirable characteristic o Culture influences self development  Individualistic cultures = list personal traits in experiment  Collectivistic cultures= list more social identity terms o Gender-role socialization provide with gender schemas - Evaluating humanistic theories o Focus on individual’s subjective experiences  Some believe relies too much on reports of personal experience o Impossible to define actualization tendency except in terms of behavior it produces o Rogers most notable contributions = series of groundbreaking studies on process of self-growth that can occur in psychotherapy  Measure discrepancy between ideal selves and perceived selves TRAIT AND BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES - Trait theorists goals= condense behavioral descriptors into manageable number of traits - 2 approaches o Propose traits based on intuition or theory of personality  Factor analysis to identify clusters of specific behavior that highly correlate so you can group them as one basic trait CATTEL’S 16 PERSONALITY FACTORS - Made 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire o Meas
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