Textbook Notes (378,173)
CA (167,090)
Western (16,614)
Psychology (5,072)
1000 (1,655)
Terry Biggs (193)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Personality.docx

11 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

This preview shows pages 1-2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 11 pages of the document.

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Chapter 14 - Personality: ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that characterize a person’s response to life situations - 3 characteristics of personality o Components of identity that is unique to a person o Behavior viewed as caused by internal rather than environmental factors o Perceived organization and structure PSYCHODYNAMIC VIEW - Theories look for causes of behavior in internal forces and how they usually conflict with each other FREUD - Vienna - Studied with Jean Charcot o Charcot treating patients with conversion hysteria o Observed that the symptoms were because of painful memories and feelings  Convinced Freud that unconscious influence behavior greatly - Book = the interpretation of dreams - Thought personality as energy system o Instinctual drive generate psychic energy  Powers mind and constantly presses for release - 3 types of mental events o Conscious  Mental events presently aware of o Preconscious  Mental events unaware at the moment but can be called into conscious awareness o Unconscious  Biggest part  Anything that lies in our unconscious - 3 structures of personality that all interact with each other o Id  Unconscious mind  Innermost core  Only structure present at birth  Source of psychic energy  Operates according to pleasure principle  Pleasure principle: drive for instant need gratification o Ego  Develops to have direct contact with reality  Reality principle: egos tendency to take reality into account and act in rational fashion in satisfying needs  Looks at reality to decide when and how id can discharge its impulses  Balancing act between superego and id  Anxiety motivates ego to deal with problem at hand o Superego  Last to develop  Age 4-5  Moral  Values and ideals of society  After development, self-control takes over the reward/punishment way of teaching  Moralistic goals over realistic ones  Tries to block gratification permanently - Defense Mechanisms: unconscious process where the ego prevents the expression of anxiety-arousing impulses or allows them in disguised forms o Ego resort to this when realistic strategies are ineffective o Usually unaware they are using this o Excessive reliance= cause of maladaptive/dysfunctional behavior - Types of defense mechanisms o Repression: anxiety-arousing impulse/memories pushed back into unconscious  May be released indirectly o Sublimation: repressed impulse released in form of socially acceptable behavior o Denial: refusal to acknowledge anxiety-arousing aspects o Displacement: impulse repressed and directed to a safer target o Intellectualization: emotion repressed and situation dealt as intellectually interesting event o Projection: impulse repressed and projected to other people o Rationalization: construct false but plausible explanation for behavior/event that already happened o Reaction formation: impulse repressed and psychic energy released in exaggerated expression of opposite behavior - Psychosexual development o Children go through a series of psychosexual stages o Id tendencies focused on erogenous zones o Deprivation or overindulgence during stages can cause fixation  Fixation: state when arrested in psychosexual development and instinct focused on particular psychic theme o Part of Freud’s theory that was criticized the most - Stages of Psychosexual development o Oral: 0-2  Erogenous zone: mouth  Key task: weaning o Anal: 2-3  EZ: anus  KT: toilet training o Phallic: 4-6  EZ: genitals  KT: resolve Oedipus complex o Latency: 7- puberty  EZ: none  KT: develop social relationships o Genital: puberty on  EZ: genitals  KT: develop mature social and sexual relationships - Research on psychoanalytic theory o Tested through case studies and clinical observations o Wegner: tested if wishes during day appear in dreams  University students  Suppressed targets appeared in dreams more than unsuppressed targets o Now, able to study the brain activity so able to test Freud with greater accuracy EVALUATE PSYCHANALYTIC THEORY - Criticisms of Psychoanalytic theory o Many propositions haven’t held up under research o Hard to test  Some are untestable  Too many implications for the results - Neoanalysts: disagreed with parts of Freud’s theory so developed own theories o Thought Freud didn’t put enough emphasis on social and cultural factors  Thought stressed infantile sexuality too much o Freud laid too much emphasis on the influence of events of childhood in adult personality - Erikson: through personality development continued throughout life o Didn’t just stop at childhood like how Freud thought - Adler: Humans motivated by social interest (desire to advance welfare of others) o Thinking of others o General motive in life = striving for superiority  Drives people to compensate for their defects (inferiority complex) and strive for a better life - Jung: developed analytic psychology o Humans don’t just have personal unconscious (made by life experience) but also collective unconscious (made by history of human race) o Archetypes: inherited tendencies to interpret experiences in certain ways  Driven by memories accumulated by human race - Klein, Kernberg, Mahler, Kohut: object relations: focus on image people form of themselves and other people because of early experience with caregivers o Image becomes lens the person sees other people throughout lives o Images of themselves often create self-fulfilling prophecies o Attachment theory = outgrowth of object relations approach  Can relate early attachment experience to later adult relationships HUMANISITIC PERSPECTIVE - Emphasize individuals inborn strive and potential for self-actualization o Self-actualization: total realization of one’s potential CARL ROGERS - Self theory o Believed behavior is reaction to immediate conscious experience of self and environment o If force that direct behavior is not influenced by environment then direct us to self-actualization - Central concept = self o Self: organized set of perceptions and believes about oneself  Direct behavior  Creates perceptions - As child, can’t tell difference between themselves and environment o Self-concept develops in response to life experiences - When self-concept developed, want to maintain it o Develop need for self-consistency and congruence o If different then evoke threat and anxiety  If react adaptively = modify his self-concept or distort reality (explain the behavior)  If react badly = problems in living o To maintain it, also behave in ways so that people will respond to them in self-confirming fashion - Degree of congruence between self-concept and experience show how one’s level of adjustment is o More inflexible a person’s self-concept is, less open to experience, more maladjusted they will be - Born with innate need for positive regard o Need for positive regard: need for acceptance, sympathy, and love from others  Unconditional positive regard: communicated attitude of unconditional acceptance of another person  Conveys person’s intrinsic worth  Conditional positive regard: love given based on how child behaves o Also develop need for positive self-regard  Need for positive self-regard: innate need to feel good about ourselves o Lack of unconditional positive regard foster development of conditions of worth  Conditions of worth: dictate when we approve or disapprove ourselves - Fully functioning persons o People who achieved self-actualization o Fairly free of conditions of worth  Accept experiences as they are - Research on self o 2 topics mainly being researched  Development of self-esteem and effects  Roles played by self-enhancement and self-consistency motives o Self-esteem: how positively or negatively we feel about ourselves  Levels seem to be stable across development  High self-esteem = less susceptible to social pressure, fewer problems, happier with lives…  Too high is bad o If threatened, may react aggressively to protect self-esteem  Poor self-esteem = more prone to psychological problems  Increase self-esteem by unconditional acceptance/love  Failure is more damaging than success o Self-verification: need to preserve self-concept by maintaining self- consistency and congruence  University students – only remember adjectives that are consistent with their self-concept  Seek out self-confirming relationships  More likely to be in relationships that agree with the image they have of themselves o Self-enhancement: tendency to regard themselves positively  Attribute success to own ability and effort  Attribute failure to environmental factors  Rate themselves better than average in any socially desirable characteristic o Culture influences self development  Individualistic cultures = list personal traits in experiment  Collectivistic cultures= list more social identity terms o Gender-role socialization provide with gender schemas - Evaluating humanistic theories o Focus on individual’s subjective experiences  Some believe relies too much on reports of personal experience o Impossible to define actualization tendency except in terms of behavior it produces o Rogers most notable contributions = series of groundbreaking studies on process of self-growth that can occur in psychotherapy  Measure discrepancy between ideal selves and perceived selves TRAIT AND BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES - Trait theorists goals= condense behavioral descriptors into manageable number of traits - 2 approaches o Propose traits based on intuition or theory of personality  Factor analysis to identify clusters of specific behavior that highly correlate so you can group them as one basic trait CATTEL’S 16 PERSONALITY FACTORS - Made 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire o Meas
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1-2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.