Chapter 1 The dates are clearly wrong. I cant remember what date I took the note on. Its inclusive of the book and lecture.
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Psychology- scientific study of the human behavior and the factors that influence it.
o What kinds of behaviors does psychology study?
To actions that we can observe directly and to inner processes (mental events)
such as thought s, feelings, images, and physiological reactions. While studying
these behaviors, they take into account biological, individual, and
Basic Research- the quest for knowledge purely for its own sake.
o Goals are to describe how people behave and to identify the factors that influence or
cause a particular type of behavior.
Applied Research- designed to solve specific practical problems.
o Often uses principles discovered in basic research to solve practical problems.
Jigsaw Program- this program requires children to cooperate with each other
rather than compete against one another in order for any of them to succeed.
Illustration for the relation between basic and applied science.
4 goals of psychologists:
o To describe how people and other animals behave
o To explain and understand the causes of these behaviors
o To predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions
o To influence or control behavior through knowledge and control of its causes to
enhance human welfare.
Related in the sense that: if we understand the causes of a behavior and know
when the causal factors are present or absent, then we should be able to
successfully predict when the behavior will occur. Moreover, if we can control
the causes, then we should be able to control the behavior.
Perspectives- diverse viewpoints that are vantage points for analyzing behavior and its
biological, psychological and environmental causes.
Mind-body dualism- the belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to the physical laws
that govern the body. This research implies that no amount of research on the body could ever
hope to unravel the mysteries of the mind.
Monism- (in the materialist form) holds that the “mind” is not a separate spiritual entity. Mind
and body are one, and mental events are simply a product of physical events.
Biological Perspective- focuses on the physical side of human nature. It emphasizes the role of
our highly developed brain; the biochemical processes that underlie our every thought,
emotion, and action; and the manner in which genetic factors influence the development and
behavior of human organisms.
Natural Selection- any inheritable characteristic that increases the likelihood of survival will be
maintained in the species because individuals having the characteristic will be more likely to
survive and reproduce.