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Phenotype- the observable characteristics produced by that genetic endowment.
Genotype- the specific genetic makeup of the individual.
Chromosome- tightly coiled molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is partly covered by
Genes- the DNA portion of the chromosome carries the hereditary blueprint in units called
Polygenic transmission- a number of gene pairs combine their influences to create a single
Recombinant DNA procedures- researchers use certain enzymes to cut the long thread-like
molecule of genetic DNA into pieces, combine them with DNA from another organism, and
insert them into a host organism, such as a bacterium.
Gene knockout- procedure done with animals consists of altering a specific gene in a way that
prevents it from carrying out its normal function.
Heritability coefficient- the extent to which variation in a particular characteristic within a group
can be attributed to genetic factors is estimated statistically by a heritability coefficient.
Adoption study- a person who was adopted early in life is compared on some characteristic
both with the biological parents, with whom the person shares genetic endowment, and with
the adoptive parents, with whom no genes are shared.
Twin studies- one of the most powerful techniques used in behavior genetics.
Monozygotic- identical twins develop from the same fertilized egg, so they are genetically
Dizygotic- fraternal twins develop from 2 fertilized eggs, so they share 50% of their genetic
endowment, like any other set of brothers and sisters.
Reaction range- for a genetically influenced trait is the range of possibilities- the upper and
lower limits- that the genetic code allows.
Biologically based mechanisms- no behavior by any organism can occur without this.
Evolution- change over time in the frequency with which particular genes- and the
characteristics they produce- occur within an interbreeding population.
Natural selection- characteristics that increase the likelihood of survival and ability to reproduce
within a particular environment will be more likely to be preserved in the population and
therefore will become more common in the species over time.
Adaptations- allow organisms to meet recurring environmental challenges to their survival,
thereby increasing their reproductive ability.
Domain-specific adaptations- designed to solve a particular problem, such as selecting a
suitable mate, choosing safe foods to eat, etc.
Parental investment- refers to the time, effort, energy
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