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Chapter 8

Psychology 1000 Chapter 8: Psych - Chapter 8

by OneClass2168515 , Spring 2018
16 Pages
24 Views
Spring 2018

Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Chapter
8

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Chapter 8: Memory
Memory processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and
information
H.M. had hippocampus removed to stop seizures, but was left with amnesia
o Remembers past, forgets a few years before procedure, and cant form new
memories
o His performance on tasks improves even though he doesn’t remember them
MEMORY AS INFORAMATION PROCESSING
Viewing the mind as a processing system that encodes, stores, and retrieves
information
Encoding getting information into system by translating it into a neural code that
your brain processes
o Kind of like typing and keystrokes translated into electrical code that computer
can understand and process
Storage retaining information over time
Retrieval pulling information out when we want to use it
A Three-Component Model
Memory has 3 major components: sensory memory, short-term or “working”
memory, and long-term memory
This model doesn’t assume each component corresponds to a specific part of the
brain
Sensory Memory
Holds incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognized
Composed of different subsystems, called sensory registers, which are the initial
information processors
Visual sensory register is called the iconic store
o Stores information for a very brief amount of time, a fraction of a second
Auditory sensory register is called the echoic store
o Lasts longer than iconic
o Around 2 seconds long
Short-Term / Working Memory
Most information in sensory memory just fades away
Through selective attention, a small portion of the information enter short term
memory, which holds the information that we are conscious of at any given time
Also called working memory because it consciously processes, codes, and “works
on” information
Icon: temporary visual memory trace
Memory codes
Information must be represented by some type of code if it is to be retained in
short term and eventually long term memory
Memory codes are mental representations that can take on many forms:
o Mental image: visual encoding
o Code something by sound: phonological encoding
o Meaning of stimulus: semantic encoding
o Patterns of movement: motor encoding
The form of memory code often doesn’t correspond to the form of the original
stimulus
o Ex. We read works (visual stimuli) but we form phonological codes since
we are saying the words to ourselves, and semantic codes since we are
thinking about their meaning
Capacity and duration
Short term memory can hold only a limited about of information at a time
We can hold about 5-9 items at a time in short term memory (letters, numbers,
words, etc.)
Chunking combining individual items into larger units of meaning, greatly aids
recall
short term memory also limited in duration (as well as capacity)
lasts about 20 seconds
by rehearsing information (saying it over and over again in our heads or out
loud), we can extend its duration in short term memory indefinitely
maintenance rehearsal simplest repetition of information
o ex. Saying a phone number over and over again while you wait for the
phone
elaborative rehearsal focusing on meaning of information or relating it to other
things we already know
both types keep information active in short term but elaborative is more effective
in transferring information into long term
Putting short term memory “to work”
according to 3 stage model, things that stay in short term long enough will
eventually get transferred to long term
used to be viewed as intermediate step between sensory to long term memory
now it is viewed as a working memory a mental workspace that actively and
simultaneously processes different types if info and supports other cognitive
functions like problem solving and planning, and interacts with long term
one model breaks working memory into 4 components
1) auditory working memory (phonological loop) like when we repeat things to
ourselves mentally
2) visual-spatial working memory (visuospatial sketchpad) allows us to
temporarily store and manipulate images and spatial information, like when
forming mental maps of routes
3) episodic buffer provides temporary storage space where info from long term
and from the phonological loop and/or visuospatial subsystems can be
integrated, manipulated, and mode available for conscious awareness; comes
into play when you chunk information
4) central executive control process that directs action; heavily involved in
prefrontal cortex; manages how much attention is allocated to mental imagery
and auditory rehearsal, calls up information from long term, and integrates
input
Long-Term Memory
we remain capable of forming new long term memories until we die
long term storage capacity is unlimited
once formed, these memories can last a lifetime
serial position effect U shaped pattern when graphed; meaning that recall is
influenced by a word’s position in a series of items
o has 2 components:
1) primacy effect reflecting superior recall of early words; caused by the
fact that we can quickly rehearse them and transfer the first few words to
long term quickly; if we can avoid rehearsal, then this effect goes away...
for example by listing items faster
2) recency effect reflecting superior recall of the most recent words; caused
by the fact that they are still in short term; this effect can go away if we
eliminate the last words from short term memory by delaying recall test by
30 seconds (while we are prevented from rehearsing)
ENCODING: ENTERING INFORMATION

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Description
Chapter 8: Memory Memory processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information H.M. had hippocampus removed to stop seizures, but was left with amnesia o Remembers past, forgets a few years before procedure, and cant form new memories o His performance on tasks improves even though he doesnt remember them MEMORY AS INFORAMATION PROCESSING Viewing the mind as a processing system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information Encoding getting information into system by translating it into a neural code that your brain processes o Kind of like typing and keystrokes translated into electrical code that computer can understand and process Storage retaining information over time Retrieval pulling information out when we want to use it A Three-Component Model Memory has 3 major components: sensory memory, short-term or working memory, and long-term memory This model doesnt assume each component corresponds to a specific part of the brain Sensory Memory Holds incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognized Composed of different subsystems, called sensory registers, which are the initial information processors Visual sensory register is called the iconic store o Stores information for a very brief amount of time, a fraction of a second Auditory sensory register is called the echoic store o Lasts longer than iconic o Around 2 seconds long Short-Term / Working Memory Most information in sensory memory just fades away Through selective attention, a small portion of the information enter short term memory, which holds the information that we are conscious of at any given time Also called working memory because it consciously processes, codes, and works on information Icon: temporary visual memory trace Memory codes Information must be represented by some type of code if it is to be retained in short term and eventually long term memory Memory codes are mental representations that can take on many forms: o Mental image: visual encoding o Code something by sound: phonological encoding o Meaning of stimulus: semantic encoding o Patterns of movement: motor encoding The form of memory code often doesnt correspond to the form of the original stimulus o Ex. We read works (visual stimuli) but we form phonological codes since we are saying the words to ourselves, and semantic codes since we are thinking about their meaning Capacity and duration Short term memory can hold only a limited about of information at a time We can hold about 5-9 items at a time in short term memory (letters, numbers, words, etc.) Chunking combining individual items into larger units of meaning, greatly aids recall short term memory also limited in duration (as well as capacity) lasts about 20 seconds by rehearsing information (saying it over and over again in our heads or out loud), we can extend its duration in short term memory indefinitely maintenance rehearsal simplest repetition of information o ex. Saying a phone number over and over again while you wait for the phone elaborative rehearsal focusing on meaning of information or relating it to other things we already know both types keep information active in short term but elaborative is more effective in transferring information into long term Putting short term memory to work according to 3 stage model, things that stay in short term long enough will eventually get transferred to long term used to be viewed as intermediate step between sensory to long term memory now it is viewed as a working memory a mental workspace that actively and simultaneously processes different types if info and supports other cognitive functions like problem solving and planning, and interacts with long term one model breaks working memory into 4 components 1) auditory working memory (phonological loop) like when we repeat things to ourselves mentally 2) visual-spatial working memory (visuospatial sketchpad) allows us to temporarily store and manipulate images and spatial information, like when forming mental maps of routes 3) episodic buffer provides temporary storage space where info from long term and from the phonological loop and/or visuospatial subsystems can be integrated, manipulated, and mode available for conscious awareness; comes into play when you chunk information 4) central executive control process that directs action; heavily involved in prefrontal cortex; manages how much attention is allocated to mental imagery and auditory rehearsal, calls up information from long term, and integrates input Long-Term Memory we remain capable of forming new long term memories until we die long term storage capacity is unlimited once formed, these memories can last a lifetime serial position effect U shaped pattern when graphed; meaning that recall is influenced by a words position in a series of items o has 2 components: 1) primacy effect reflecting superior recall of early words; caused by the fact that we can quickly rehearse them and transfer the first few words to long term quickly; if we can avoid rehearsal, then this effect goes away... for example by listing items faster 2) recency effect reflecting superior recall of the most recent words; caused by the fact that they are still in short term; this effect can go away if we eliminate the last words from short term memory by delaying recall test by 30 seconds (while we are prevented from rehearsing) ENCODING: ENTERING INFORMATION Effortful and Automatic Processing effortful processing encoding that is initiated intentionally and require conscious attention o ex. Rehearsing, making lists, taking class notes automatic processing encoding that occurs without intention and requires minimal attention o information about frequency, spatial location, sequence, and timing is usually encoded automatically o ex. You can recall the sequence of things you did yesterday easily Levels of Processing: When Deeper is Better according to the levels of processing concept, the more deeply we process information, the better it will be remembered semantic processing involves deepest processing since it require us to focus on meaning of information phonological processing is intermediate structurally involves shallow processing since we are just perceiving structure of words Exposure and Rehearsal many shallow exposures to a stimulus does not guarantee long term retention o ex. Drawing a penny from memory, even though weve seen it thousands of time, we cant just draw it from memory rehearsal goes beyond exposure because we are actually thinking about the information elaborative rehearsal involves deeper processing than maintenance rehearsal and should be more effective in transferring information into long term memory Organization and Memory imposing organization on a set of stimuli is an excellent way to enhance memory Hierarchies and Chunking organizing things in a hierarchy takes advantage of the principle that memory is enhanced by associations between concepts o it is easier to remember a list of words if they are presented to you in a fashion that has meaning, rather than randomly o hierarchy also uses visual organization, which means we may use imagery as a supplemental memory code
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