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Chapter 17

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 17: Deinstitutionalisation, Alprazolam, Antipsychotic

Course Code
PSYCH 1000

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Chapter 17: Treatet of Psychological Disorders
Counselling and clinical psychologists PhD people with that can perform psychotherapeutic
Psychiatrists medical doctors who specialize in psychotherapy and biomedical treatments,
such as drug therapy
Others see textbook
Techniques vary widely since councillors ad pshologists diffe depedig o theapists’ o
theories of cause and change
Focuses on internal conflict and unconscious factors that underlie maladaptive behaviour
Psychoanalysis eas Feud’s theo of pesoalit AND the appoah to teatet that he
Goal: help clients achieve insight conscious awareness of underlying problems
o Allows them to realize their behaviour and adjust them
Free Association
Sit behind client and tell them to say anything that enters conscious awareness without
Provide clues to unconscious material
Dream Interpretation
Deas epess ipulses, fatasies, ad ishes that the liet’s defees keep i the
unconscious during waking hours
oal oad to uosious
Analyst tries to help client search for the unconscious material contained in the dreams, find out
what symbols in dream actually represent
Defense manoeuvres that hinder the process of therapy
Can be manifested in many ways
o Experience difficulty in free associating
o Ma oe late o foget apt
o May avoid talking about certain topics
Sign that sensitive anxiety-arousing material is being approached
This promotes insight on client
Analyst reveals nothing about themselves to client
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Occurs when client responds irrationally to the analyst as if he or she were an important figure
fo the liet’s past
Most important process since it brings out into the open repressed feelings and maladaptive
behaviour patterns that the analyst can point out to the client
Can be positive (love, dependency) or negative (hate, anger) towards the analyst
Very important part of therapy
Any statement provided by therapist intended to provide the client with insight into his or her
behaviour or dynamics
Interpretations should be near the surface of awareness
Deep interpretations are bad, cannot be informative
Client must eventually arrive at the insight themselves
Brief Psychodynamic Therapies
Classic psychoanalysis therapy takes years, but studies show most improvements happen within
10 sessions. So a briefer version was developed.
Most improvement occur by 10th session, then improvement decreases over time
Some research says that the long term therapy is better than other short methods
Clients face the therapist directly, meet less often
Conversation replaces free association
Long term therapies usually more effective
Focus on life problems rather than rebuilding personality
More focused on current problems that on past childhood experiences
One type: interpersonal therapy
o 15-20 sessions max
o Focus on marital conflict, loss, or social skills - find solutions to these problems
o Effective therapy for depression and somatic system disorder
view humans as capable of consciously controlling their actions and taking responsibility for
their choices and behaviour
Focus on future and present, rather than past
Client-Centred Therapy
Most widely used form of humanistic therapy
Relationship develops between client and therapist to foster self-exploration
Referred to as client not patient
Carl Rogers
3 important interrelated therapist attributes:
1) Unconditional positive regard - trust, acceptance, nonjudgement, caring
2) Empathy - willing to view the old though the liet’s ees, efletig epeatig hat
they say
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3) Genuineness - therapist expresses honest feelings, positive or negative
Rogers believed that when these 3 things were achieved, the client can grow
Job is not to interpret your life, it is to let you talk
Therapy most likely to be successful when the therapist is perceived as genuine, warm,
Gestalt Therapy
Humanistic approach
Gestalt = organized whole
Patient is ignoring the background - important feelings, wishes thoughts that are blocked
Bring them into awareness, get in touch with inner self to e holeagain
Often done in groups
Methods are active and dramatic than client centered
Much more confrontational than client-centered therapy
Often involves role playing
o Empty-chair technique - imagine mom sitting in chair and talk to her (playing both roles)
Perls as uh less sietifi tha Roges, did’t test his theap
Rogers did videotape stuff
Others tested empty-chair technique and its quite successful
Focus on role of irrational and self-defeating thought patterns
Do NOT emphasize unconscious
Ellis’s Ratioal-Emotive Therapy
Irrational thoughts rather than unconscious dynamics were the most immediate cause of self-
defeating emotions
ABCD Model
o A activating event that triggers emotion
o B belief system that underlies the way in which a person appraises an event
o C consequences emotional and behavioural consequences of that appraisal
o D disputing or challenging an erroneous belief system
Ellis disputes that events cause emotions
o Ex. You feel bad because you got rejected. The real reason you feel bad is that you
believe everyone must love you to be worth something
o Must replace this irrational belief with a rational one (would have been nice to date her
ut I do’t eed to turn it into a catastrophe)
Bek’s Cogitie Theap
Goal: point out errors of thinking and logic that underlie emotional disturbance and to help
liets idetif ad epoga thei oeleaed autoati thought pattes
Helps them realize that their thoughts, not their situation makes them depressed
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