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Chapter 1&2

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1&2: Unconscious Mind, Sigmund Freud, Wilhelm Wundt


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Nick Skinner
Chapter
1&2

Page:
of 14
Psych Lecture #2/3 Ch. 1&2 9/24/2013 10:33:00 AM
Psychology the discipline concerned with behaviour and mental processes
and how they are affected organisms physical state, mental state and
external environment.
Methods:
(1) Descriptive Field Observation (naturalistic) must be done
systematically, as many situations/times as possible
anthropomorphism: giving human characteristics to animals
on the basis of only observation, you can’t know exactly why the
behavior happened
we explain what we see in an experiment because we set up the
environment and controls
- Survey: the conditions which a survey must abide
Methods of analyzing and recording must be recorded with
administration
The surveyors must fully understand the purpose of the experiment
and be skillful and knowledgeable
The sample of people you are asking to take the survey must be
selected to represent the population
Surveys questions must cover the topic uniform and generate
answers which discriminate and/or do not create bias
- “clinical” Interviewist Rating Scale PAST
Tests (Subjective, Objective) PRESENT
Case Study
*more than half of psychologist in Canada are Clinical Psychologist
Conditions for a good rating system:
(1)person who does the rating must be familiar with the use of a
scale, the rater should know the person they are rating for at least
3 months, must be able to rate the person in multiple areas of life
(2) 10-20 raters per person being rated
(3) person who is receiving the rates should be aware of the
relationship between each rater and them self
Tests:
Subjective (self-import) honest judgment about yourself, notoriously
fakeable
Objective put a person in a miniature behavioral situation
-a lot of info
-a lot of people
-quickly
-no complex apparatus
-not disruptive
longitudinal study (over long period of time)
ex) Silva (principle) monitored about 1000 children, tested every 2-3 years
(2) Correlational chapter 1 & appendix
(3) Experimental (Systematic Intervention) a matter of logic, not location
Characteristics:
Experimental Control
Experimental Method replication
- variables: something that can vary, a factor
or condition that can change that can be measured
Controlled variables: experimenter has to deal with and possibly eliminate
Convention for graphing independent and dependent variables:
Dependent variable always on Y-axis (DOVY) dependent, ordinate,
vertical Y-axis
Independent variable always on the x-axis
a3i
a artificially / control one has in a lab, may not be the case in reality
3
i inappropriateness, interference, interpretation
Left handed cohort:
85% more likely to get into a car accident
2% more likely to die
Empirical Relaying on or derived from observation, experimentation, or
measurement
Psychobabble Pseudoscience and quackery covered by a veneer of
psychological and scientific-sounding language
Promises easy fixes to life’s problems and challenges
Examples of psychobabble believed to be true, but in fact have been proven
WRONG by empirical evidence;
Abused children become abusive adults
Most women suffer from PMS
Play Beethoven’s symphony to an infant and they will become smarter
THINKING CRITICALLY AND CREATIVELY ABOUT PSYCHOLOGY
CRITICAL THINKING the ability and willingness to assess claims and make
objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence,
rather than emotion or anecdote.
Come up with alternate explanations for events, research findings
and apply new knowledge to social/personal problems
Indispensable in ordinary life
Clear thinking requires effort and practice
Your opinion, if it ignores reality, is not equal to any other
Fundamental to all science
The trigger for creative thinking is the disposition to be curious, to
wonder, to inquire
Thinking critically about the issues; pg. 15 for examples
(1) Ask Questions and be willing to wonder
ask the right questions
(2) Define your terms
what are you trying to find out
(3) Examine the evidence
conduct tests, don’t relay all on what the eye sees
(4) Analyze assumptions and biases
Does it always work the same way, does it depend on the environment?
(5) Don’t oversimplify
resists easy generalizations
(6) Avoid emotional reasoning
needed for defending unpopular ideas, but not when it becomes a “gut-
feeling”