Textbook Notes (228,020)
CA (157,180)
Western (16,748)
Psychology (5,318)
1000 (1,731)
Dr.Mike (723)
Chapter 13

Psychology 1000 Chapter 13: Chapter 13

, Fall 2016
25 pages82 viewsFall

Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Chapter
13

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 25 pages of the document.
Chapter 13- Behaviour in a Social Context
We are social beings
The social environments we live in shape how we behave, think and feel
Social thinking: how we think about our social world
Social perception: how we perceive our world
Social influence: how other people influence our behaviour
Social relations: how we behave toward other people
Social Thinking and Perception
We spend a lot of time thinking about our social world
Attributing: Perceiving the Causes of Behaviour
o Attributions: judgements about the causes of our own and other people’s
behaviour and outcomes
If I attribute my A to hard work and ability I will feel greater pride and
continue to exert more effort than if I attribute it to an easy test
Jurors’ attributions about a defendants behaviour influence their decisions
about a defendants behaviour influence their decisions about guilt vs
innocence
o Personal vs Situational Attributions
Fritz Heider
Pioneer of attribution theory
Maintained that our attempts to understand why people behave as
they do typically involve other personal attributions or situational
attributions
Personal attributions: (internal) infer that peoples behaviour is caused by
their characteristics (eg. Bill insulted Carl because he is a rude person)
Situational attributions: (external) infer that aspects of the situation cause
a behaviour (eg. Bill was provoked into insulting)
Three types of information determine the attribution we make:
Consistency
Distinctiveness
Consensus
o How do people respond
When these three things are all high we are likely to make a
situational attribution
When consistency is high but the other two are low we make a
personal attribution
Sometimes people look at all three of the factors but sometimes
people take short cuts and make judgements fast that bias
attributions
o Attributional Biases
Social psychology tells us that the immediate environment profoundly
influences behaviour
We often form negative opinions because we have a fundamental
attribution error
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Fundamental attribution error: we underestimate the impact of the
situation and overestimate the role of personal factors when explaining
other people’s behaviour (eg. We think our fav movies stars have the same
personalities as the characters they play)
Applies to how we perceive other peoples behaviour rather than
our own
o This is because we have more information about the
situation when making judgements about ourselves
o The perceptual principle of figure ground relations comes
into play
When we watch something they stand out, but we
don’t watch ourselves we are in the background and
the situation stands out
When people have time to think about their judgements or are
highly motivated to be careful the fundamental attribution error is
reduced
Self-serving bias: making relatively more personal attributions for
successes and more situational attributions for failures (eg. Athletes)
When it comes to explaining our own behaviour, we protect our
self esteem by doing this
Depressed people display the opposite attributional pattern, taking
too little credit for success and too much credit for failures, a
pattern that helps them stay depressed
o Culture and Attribution
Culture influences how we perceive the social world
People from India and America attributed causality for several behaviours
With increasing age people from India made more situational
attributions and Americans made more personal attributions
o Because of India is not an individualistic culture
Culture also influences attribution for our own behaviour
Cultural background also affects the way we go about making attributions
Different people have different views of the universe
o People who think holistically vs those who done
Forming and Maintaining Impressions
o Attributions play a key role in impression formation
o Is the person just like that or is it because of the situation?
o Primacy vs Recency: Are First Impressions more important?
Primary effect: tendency to attach more importance to the initial
information that we learn about a person
New information can change our opinion but it has to work harder
to overcome the first impression
We tend to be most alert to information we receive first
That initial information may shape how we perceive subsequence
information
Primacy is a general rule of thumb in impression formation, especially for
people who dislike ambiguity and uncertainty
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

We have capacity for forming snap judgements based on small amounts of
initial information
o Mental Sets and Schemas: Seeing What we expect to See
Our mental set, which is a readiness to perceive the world in a particular
way, shaped how we interpret a stimulus
What creates mental sets?
Important factor: schema
o Schema: mental frameworks that help us organize and
interpret information
o Although the hosts behaviour can be interpreted in multiple
ways, you fit behaviour into the particular schema that is
already activated (when someone tells you something about
someone you already have an idea of what you think they
will be like and that influences shit)
Stereotype: generalized belief about a group or category of people,
represents a powerful schema
o Self-fulfilling Prophecies: Creating what We Expect to See
Self-fulfilling prophecy: occurs usually without conscious awareness,
when peoples expectations lead them to act toward others in a way that
brings out the expected behaviours
Confirming the original impression
Seeing what we expect to see is only one way we confirm out initial
expectations and impressions
In interacting with others, our initial, unfounded expectations can
influence how we behave towards them
Shaping their behaviour in a way that ultimately confirms our
expectations
o Attitudes and Attitude Change
Attitudes help to steer the course of world events
Attitude: positive or negative evaluative reaction toward a stimulus, such
as a person, action, object or concept
Our attitudes are supported by an extensive personal belief and
value system
Do Our Attitudes Influence Our Behaviour?
Attitudes do predict behaviour
Three factors help to explain the attitude-behaviour relationship
that is strong in one cases but weak in others
o Attitudes influence behaviour more strongly when
counteracting situational factors are weak
Financial incentives, conformity and others
pressures and conditions may lead people to behave
in ways that are at odds with their inner convictions
Theory of planned behaviour: our intention to
engage in behaviour is strongest when we have a
positive attitude toward that behaviour
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version


Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.