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Chapter 8

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Prefrontal Cortex, Sensory Memory, Sketchpad

Course Code
PSYCH 1000

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Chapter 8 Notes
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Memory Information & Processing
- Encoding: getting information into the system by translating it into a neutral code that
your brain processes
- Storage: involves retaining information over time
- Retrieval: to pull information out of storage when we want to use it
- Proposes that memory has three major components:
o Sensory memory
o Short term memory
o Long term memory
Sensory Memory
- Holds incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognized
- Composed of different sub-systems called sensory registers: which are the initial
information processors
o Iconic store visual sensory register
Time course is very short
Almost impossible to retain information only visually
o Echoic store auditory sensory register
Lasts longer than iconic store
Short Term Memory
- Attention capabilities are limited so most memory fades away
- Through selective attention, small portion enters the short term memory
- Consciously processes & codes information
- Involved in recall: long term short term output
- Memory codes (memory formation) forming mental image (visual), coding by sound
(phonological), focusing on meaning (semantic), patterns of movement (motor)
o Ex: visually represent a phone number in your mind
o The form of the memory code does not always correspond to original stimulus -
words are visual stimulus but semantic/phonological coding
o You are more likely to have trouble remembering 10 words that sound the same,
not 10 words that mean the same thing; hence words are coded phonologically
o In STM, everything ends up as auditory code eventually so things that sound the
same are the most interfering
- Capacity/Duration - 72 - “the magic number” of meaningful items that can be in STM
o A word is one unit, but if its letter is presented separately they are different units
o Combining units to aid memory is called chunking
o Without rehearsal, short term info has 20 second lasting time
o Maintenance rehearsal simple repetition of information
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