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Chapter 17

Psychology 1000 Chapter 17: Chapter 17 - Psychological Treatments


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Leslie Janes
Chapter
17

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Chapter 17 - Psychological Treatments
Psychotherapies
Psychoanalysis: based on Freud’s theories
The Goal of psychoanalysis is to gain insight
-- bringing unconscious conflicts to consciousness
This therapy can release psychic energy devoted to keeping conflict repressed
Psychoanalytic Techniques
Free Association: expressing thoughts and feelings without censorship
EX: sit behind client and tell them to say anything
Dream Analysis - interpretation via free association
Manifest (story the dreamer reports) vs Latent Content (the disguised, underlying meaning)
Resistance: Nearing repressed conflict - defense mechanism against therapy, resistance is a sign of a sensitive
topic
EX: Patient gets angry, avoids topic, misses appointments
Transference: psychoanalytic phenomenon in which a client responds irrationally to the analyst as if he were an
important person from the client’s past who plays an important role in client’s dynamics
EX: when client’s feelings about therapist are same as toward parent
Evaluating this therapy:
Purpose is to provide client with insight into their behaviour
Interpretation should be near the surface as opposed to deep interpretation which are
bad because they are not informative
Weakness: client must eventually arrive at the insight themselves
Works better for anxiety than schizophrenia and better for younger ppl than older
Brief Psychodynamic Theories:
Classic psychoanalysis therapy takes years, but studies show most improvements happen within 10
sessions. So a briefer version was developed. Clients face the therapist directly, meet less often. Focus
on life problems rather than rebuilding personality
Humanistic Therapies
- Humanists focus on people’s striving for personal growth
- Instead of inner conflicts, humanistic therapy focuses on environmental condition that block growth
and development
- Helps clients become more aware of their own feelings
- Client-Centred Therapy (Carl Rogers)
- Most widely used form of humanistic therapy
- Relationship develops between client and therapist to foster self-exploration
- Referred to as client not patient
- 3 important interrelated therapist attributes:
- Unconditional positive regard - trust, acceptance, nonjudgement, caring
- Empathy - willing to view the world through the client’s eyes, “reflecting”
(repeating) what they say
- Genuineness - therapist expresses honest feelings, positive or negative
- Rogers believed that when these 3 things were achieved, the client can grow
- Job is not to interpret your life, it is to let you talk
- Therapy most likely to be successful when the therapist is perceived as genuine,
warm, empathetic
- Gestalt Therapy
- Fritz Perls (created it)
-Humanistic approach
-Gestalt = organized whole
-Patient is ignoring the background - important feelings, wishes thoughts that are blocked
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-Bring them into awareness, get in touch with inner self to be “whole” again
- Often done in groups
-Methods are active and dramatic than client centered
-Much more confrontational than client-centered therapy
-Often involves role playing
- Empty-chair technique - imagine mom sitting in chair and talk to her (playing both
roles)
-Perls was much less scientific than Rogers, didn’t test his therapy
-Rogers did videotape stuff
-Others tested empty-chair technique and its quite successful
COGNITIVE THERAPIES
- Focus on role of irrational and self-defeating thought patterns
- Do NOT emphasize unconscious
Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Therapy
- Irrational thoughts rather than unconscious dynamics were the most immediate cause of self-defeating
emotions
- Musterbation: counseling theory based on the idea that if people are able to change their
thoughts they can change their behavior leading to positive outcomes
- Awfulizing: refers to an irrational and dramatic thought pattern, characterized by the tendency
to overestimate the potential seriousness or negative consequences of events, situations, or
perceived threats
- ABCD Model
- A – activating event – that triggers emotion
- B – belief system – that underlies the way in which a person appraises an event
- C – consequences – emotional and behavioural consequences of that appraisal
- D – disputing – or challenging an erroneous belief system
- Ellis disputes that events cause emotions
- Ex. You feel bad because you got rejected. The real reason you feel bad is that you
believe everyone must love you to be worth something
- Must replace this irrational belief with a rational one (would have been nice to date
her but I don’t need to turn it into a catastrophe)
Beck’s Cognitive Therapy
- Goal: point out errors of thinking and logic that underlie emotional disturbance and to help clients
identify and reprogram their overlearned “automatic” thought patterns
- Helps them realize that their thoughts, not their situation makes them depressed
- Treated depressed patients very effectively (97%)
- Meichenbaum’s self-instruction training – treats stress and coping
- Combines insight and behavioural therapy
Illogical Patterns of Thought
- Overgeneralization: common issue that frequently affects those who have mental illnesses like
depression or anxiety disorders. It is a course of thinking where you apply one experience and
generalize to all experiences, including those in the future
- Explaining away positive occurrences
- selective perception
- magnifying the importance of negative events
- all-or-nothing thinking
Behaviour Therapies
- Denied importance of inner dynamics
- Behaviour disorders are learned in the same ways normal behaviours are
- Maladaptive behaviours can be unlearned by classical and operant conditioning
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