Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (170,000)
Western (10,000)
PSYCH (5,000)
PSYCH 1000 (1,000)
Dr.Mike (700)
Chapter 9

Psychology 1000 Chapter 9: Key in Textbook

Course Code
PSYCH 1000

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 18 pages of the document.
201914 星期五
C9 Language and Thinking
“The jewel in the crown of cognition" and "the human essence"
Language consists of a system of symbols and rules for combining
these symbols in ways that can generate an infinite number of
possible messages and meanings.
Psycholinguistics: the scientific study of the psychological aspects
of language, such as how people understand, produce, and acquire
Properties of Language
Symbols, structure, meaning, generativity, displacement.
Language Is Symbolic and Structured
Language uses sounds, written characters, or some other system of
symbols (e.g., hand signs) to represent objects, events, ideas,
feelings, and actions. Moreover, the symbols used in any given
language are arbitrary.
Grammar is the set of rules that dictate how symbols can be
combined to create meaningful units of communication.

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

201914 星期五
Language Conveys Meaning
Semantics: the meaning of words and sentences
Language Is Generative and Permits Displacement
Generativity means that the symbols of language can be combined
to generate an infinite number of messages that have novel
Displacement refers to the fact that language allows us to
communicate about events and objects that are not physically
The Structure of Language
Surface Structure and Deep Structure
Surface structure: consists of the symbols that are used and their
order (syntax)
Deep structure: the underlying meaning of the combined symbols
Sentences can have different surface structures but the same deep
A single surface structure can give rise to two deep structures
When read or hear speech, moving from the surface structure to
deep structure

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

201914 星期五
When express thoughts, transform deep structure into a surface
The Hierarchical Structure of Language
Phoneme: the smallest unit of speech sound in a language that can
signal a difference in meaning
- Phonemes have no inherent meaning, but they alter meaning
when combined with other elements
Morphemes: the smallest units of meaning in a language
Disclosure: sentences are combined into paragraphs, articles,
books, conversations, and so forth.
Understanding and Producing Language
The Role of Bottom-Up Processing
Bottom-up processing: individual elements of a stimulus are
analyzed and then combined to form a unified perception
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version