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Chapter 10

Psychology 1000 Chapter 10: Keys in C10

Course Code
PSYCH 1000

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2019110 星期四
C10 Intelligence
Intelligence is the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason
effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment.
Sir Francis Galton: Quantifying Mental
Pioneered the study of intelligence with his studies of hereditary
Eminence and genius seemed to occur within certain families.
Developed measures of reaction speed, hand strength, size of
people's skulls, and sensory acuity
His measures of nervous-system efficiency proved unrelated to
socially relevant measures of mental ability
Alfred Binet's Mental Tests
Developed the first intelligence test to assess the mental skills of
French school children.
Two assumptions:

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2019110 星期四
The result of the testing was a score called the mental age.
Stern's intelligence quotient (IQ) =(mental age/chronological age)
x 100.
Today's tests no longer use the concept of mental age.
Binet's Legacy: An Intelligence-Testing
Industry Emerges
The Stanford-Binet contained mostly verbal items, and it yielded a
single IQ score.
Non-verbal instrument using mazes, picture-completion problems,
and digit-symbol tasks was also developed and given the name
Army Beta.
Wechsler tests (WAIS-IV and WISC-V) are the most popular
individually administered intelligence tests in North America
- measured both verbal and non-verbal intellectual skills

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2019110 星期四
Psychometric approach attempts to map the structure of intellect
and to discover the kinds of mental competencies that underlie test
Cognitive processes approach studies the specific thought
processes that underlie those mental competencies.
The Psychometric Approach: The Structure
of Intellect
Psychometrics: the statistical study of psychological tests.
- Provide a measurement-based map of the mind.
Factor Analysis
Factor analysis reduces a large number of measures to a smaller
number of clusters, or factors, with each cluster containing variables
that correlate highly with one another but less highly with variables
in other clusters.
Cannot answer what these sets of tests are measuring.
The g Factor: Intelligence as General Mental Capacity
Verbal and mathematical abilities, while clearly different, also reflect
a more basic or general mental capacity that contributes to them
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