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Chapter 2

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Alcohol By Volume, Random Assignment, Likert Scale

Course Code
PSYCH 1000

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Scientific principles in psychology!
scientific method!!
scientific attitudes!
curiosity, skepticism, open mindedness!!
gathering evidence: steps in the scientific process!
step 1: identify a question of interest!
curiosity sparks this!!
step 2: gather information and form hypothesis!
whether any studies, theories and other info that might
help answer their question already exist!!
form new hypothesis (specific prediction about some
phenomenon that often takes the form of an if-then
step 3: test hypothesis by conducting research!!
step 4: analyze data, draw tentative conclusions and report
step 5: build a body of knowledge!
may attempt to build theories (set of formal statements
that explains how and why certain events are related to
one another)!!
2 approaches to understanding behavior!
hindsight (after the fact understanding)!
problem: related past events can be explained in many
creative, reasonable and sometimes contradictory ways!!

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understanding through prediction, control and theory
integrated network of predictions!
it incorporates existing facts and observations
within a single broad framework, organizes info
in a meaningful way!!
supported by the findings of a new research!!
conforms to!the law of parsimony: two theories
can explain and predict the same phenomena
equally well, simpler one is the preferred one!!
defining and measuring variables!
variable:!any characteristic or factor that can vary!!
operational definition: defines variable in terms of the
specific procedures used to produce or measure it.!!
Self report measures: ask ppl to report on their own
knowledge, beliefs, feelings, experiences, or behavior!
Eg. surveys!!
Social desirability bias: tendency to respond in a
socially acceptable manner rather than according to
how one truly feels or behaves!!
Measures of overt behavior!
Reaction time!!
Consistent observations!!

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Unobtrusive measures!!
Psychological tests!
Personality tests!!
Intelligence tests!!
Neuropsychology tests!!
Physciological measures!!
Methods of Research!
descriptive research: recording events!
identify how humans and other animals behave, particularly
in a natural setting!!
provides info about the diversity of behavior and may yield
clues about potential cuase and effect relations that are later
tested experimentally!
case study: indepth analusis of an individual, a group,
or an event!!
naturalistic observations: observes behavior as it occurs
in a natural setting and attempts to avoid influencing
that behavior!!
survey research: information about a topic is obtained
by administering questionnaires or interviews to many
correlational research: measuring associations between events!
1. Measures one variable (x)!!!
2. Measures a second variable (y)!!
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