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Chapter 3

Psychology 1000 Chapter 3: Psych 1000 Chapter 3

Course Code
PSYCH 1000

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Medulla: regulates vital functions such as breayhing and circulation!
Pons: involved In sleep and arousal!
Cerebellum: coordinates fine muscle movement, balance (involuntary)!
Reticular formation: group of fibres that carries stimulation related to
sleep and arousal through brain stem!
Thalamus: relay centre for incoming sensory info!
Basal ganglia: voluntary muscles (think: Parkinson's)!
Hypothalamus: regulates basic biological needs (hunger, thirst, temp
Hippocampus: limbic system structure involved in learning and memory!
Amygdala: limbic system structure involved in emotion and aggression!
Nucleus accumbens: limbic system structure involved in motivation and
Cerebrum: sensing, thinking, learning, emotion, consciousness, and
voluntary movement!
basic building blocks of the nervous system!"
Linked together in circuits!"
Cell body (contains biochemical structures needed to keep
the neuron alive)!"
Dendrites (antennas that collect messages from
neighbouring neurons and send them to cell body)!"
Axon (conducts elec. Impulses away from the cell body to
other neurons, muscles or glands)!
Axon terminals- end!!"

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Glial cells!!
surround neurons and hold them in place!"
manufacture nutrient chemicals that neurons need!"
form myelin sheath around axons!!"
Absorb toxins and waste materials (blood brain barrier,
prevents toxins from entering the brain)!"
Myelin sheath!
Fatty insulation layer!"
Made of glial cells!"
Electrical activity of neurons!
1. Generate electricity that creates nerve impulses!
a. At rest, neuron has!electrical resting potential
(-70mV)!!due to the distribution of positively and negatively
charged chemicals (ions ) inside and outside the neuron!"
b. When stimulated, a flow of ions in and out through the cell
membrane reverses the electrical charge of the resting
potential, producing an!action potential (nerve impulse)
(+40mV)!<-- depolarization!"
c. Original distribution of ions is restored and the neuron is
again at rest!"
2. Release chemicals that allow them to communicate with other
neurons and with muscles and glands!"

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Resting potential (at rest)!!
State of polarization!"
this means that the inside of the neuron is 70 mV less than the
outside. Atrest, there are relatively more sodium ions outside the
neuron and more potassium ions inside that neuron.!"
Action potential!!
Sudden reversal internal voltage -70 to +40mV (depolarization)!"
Stimulated by a stimulus!!
+ Sodium ions flood into the axon!"
Generate a nerve impulse!"
Reflex action!
Restore the restin gpotential!"
Closes na+ channels and positively charged potassium ions flow
out through their channels!"
Absolute refractory period!
Limit on the rate at which nerve impulses can occur!!"
300 impulses/second!"
All or nothing!
Action potentials must occur at a uniform and max intensity!"
The - potential inside the axon has to be changed from -70 mV to
-50 mV by the influx of sodium ions into the axon before the action
potential will be triggered!"
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