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Chapter 4

Psychology 1000 Chapter 4: Psych 100 chapter 4

Course Code
PSYCH 1000

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Genetic Influences!!
Another important part of the biological perspective!!"
Our genetic blueprint is inherited from both of our parents!"
It has an impact on all aspects of our development and
100 trillion in the human body!!"
each cell contains a nucleus – other than red blood
each contains 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs!!
1 pair from each parent!"
two long twisted strands!"
contain numerous genes!"
segments of DNA that have instructions to make
proteins (the building blocks of life)!"
they regulate every aspect of cellular functioning!!"
genes code for what the cell looks like and all the
functions of the cell!!"

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genes may be activated by environmental factors or
developmental factors!!"
if a gene is turned on or off, there will be more or less of
that protein!!"
genotype: individuals specific genetic makeup, present at
birth and never changes!!"
phenotype: our observable characteristics, affected by both
genes and environmental factors!!"
genotypes and phenotypes are not identical!!
because some genes are recessive!!"
if a gene is recessive, the trait will not be expressed
unless the paired gene from the other parent is also
dominant genes: if a gene received from the parents is
dominate the trait will definitely be expressed!!"
recessive genes: the trait won’t be expressed unless BOTH
parents give the recessive gene (otherwise the dominant
one will be expressed)!
brown eyes are dominant over blue eyes!"
dark hair is dominant over blonde hair!!"
Example: if your mother contributes brown eye genes, and
your father contributes a blue eye gene – you will have
brown eyes (the dominant gene). IF both parents contribute
the gene for blue eyes, the child will have blue eyes. THUS,

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two blue eyed parents CANNOT have brown eyed children!!"
Polygenic effects: most traits are polygenic, this means
numerous genes combine to determine a single trait!!
Usually not as simple as the example above!!"
Contemporary Applications!!
Genetic counselling: allows us to identify whether the person
actually has a specific gene that will produce a certain
disease or illness!!
For example breast cancer and Huntington’s disease!
Will be provided with medical counselling and
support if you do have the genes for a disease!!"
Genetic engineering: two procedures to discuss!
Recombinant procedures: DNA from two different
organisms is spliced and combined!!
For example the production of human growth
hormone which is produced this way!!"
Gene knockout technique: destroy certain genes and
then look at how this effects development and behavior!
But since most traits are polygenic, so it is not
always possible to study all traits using knockout
Cloning: is the production of one or more animals or plants
that are genetically identical to another plant or animal!
Very first verified example of cloning was dolly the
sheep in 1997!
Produced with reproductive cloning (means a cell
and egg came from another sheep, who was 6
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