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Chapter 17

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 17: Doctor Of Psychology, Dream Interpretation, Psychodynamics

Course Code
PSYCH 1000

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Chapter 17 Treatment
The Helping Relationship
- Basic goal help people change maladaptive feelings/thoughts etc. to live better lives
- Relationship b/w client/person providing help key to success
- Technique varies widely depending on theory used
- First seek help from family members/acquaintances etc. before seeking professional
- Counselling and clinical psychologists Ph.D. (Philosophy) or Psy.D. (Psychology)
- Psychiatrists medical doctors specialize in psychotherapy and biomedical treatments
- Psychiatric social workers community agencies
- Marriage and family counsellors problems from family relations
- Pastoral counsellors spiritual issues
- Abuse counsellors abuse issues
Psychodynamic Therapies
- Psychoanalysis Freud’s theory of personality as well as the specific approach to treatment he
- Insight: conscious awareness of the psychodynamics that underlie problems
o Adjust behaviour to current life situations
o As client repeatedly encounters buried emotions/conflicts...psychic energy used to keep
unconscious conflict under control is released/redirected to more adaptive ways
- Free association: clients recline on couch…report verbally w/o censorship anything that enters
o Analyst sits out of sight so thought process is not disturbed
o Lead to clues concerning important themes/issues
- Dreams express impulses/wishes that defences keep in the unconscious
o Defensive processes disguise threatening material to protect dreamer from anxiety
material may evoke
o Dream interpretation help client search for unconscious material contained in dream
- Resistance: defensive manoeuvres that hinder process of therapy…
o Unconscious conflicts so painful, ego resorts to maladaptive defensive patterns
o Manifested different ways
o Sign that anxiety-arousing/sensitive material is being approached
o Important to explore reasons for resistance…to promote insight and guard against
ultimate resistance client’s to drop out of therapy prematurely
- Transference: client responds irrationally to analyst if they were an important figure from
past…bring out into open repressed feelings and maladaptive behaviour patterns
o Positive transference transfer intense feelings of affection, dependency, love etc.
o Negative transference irrational expressions of anger, hatred, disappointment etc.

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o Until transference reactions resolved…no full resolution
- Interpretation: any statement by therapist intended to provide client with insight into their
o Confronts client with something they had not previously admitted to consciously
o Interpret what is already near surface (just beyond client’s awareness)
o Deep interpretations poor technique b/c too far removed that it is not helpful
o Even if analyst understands the full problem…up to client to arrive at insight
- Classical psychoanalysis expensive and time-consuming
- New psychotherapy…regardless of number of sessions…rate of improvement highest at
beginning, decreasing overtime
- Brief psychodynamic therapies use BASIC CONCEPTSemploy them in more focused and active
way (ex. Sit facing client…conversation replaces free association)
o Understand past influences and how it relates to current self-defeating behaviours
o Deal with current life problems than rebuilding client’s personality/past experience
o Interpersonal therapy: highly structured; focuses on client’s CURRENT interpersonal
problems…role disputes adjusting to loss of relationship, correcting deficits social skills
Effective in treating depression
Humanistic Psychotherapies
- People possess inner resources for self-healing/personal growth…disorder reflects blockage of
natural growth process
- Therapy seen as equal encounter create environment where clients can engage in self-
exploration and remove barriers
o Barriers result from maladaptive childhood experiencestrying to live according to
others’ expectations lead to feelings of emptiness etc.
- Focus primarily on PRESENT/FUTURE than past
o Become aware of feelings as they occur rather than achieving insight into origins of
Client-centred Therapy
- Most widely used developed by Carl Rogers
- 3 important attributes:
1) Unconditional positive regard: show clients they genuinely care about/accept them w/o
judgement sense of trust for client to work through problems
2) Empathy: willingness/ability to view world through client’s eyes reflecting back to client
by rephrasing something that captures meaning and emotions involved
3) Genuineness: consistency between way therapist feels and way client behaves; therapist
must honestly express positive and NEGATIVE feelings
- Create situation where client feels accepted and free to explore feelings without fear of being

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Gestalt Therapy
- Whatever we perceive…we concentrate on only part of experience (the figure), ignoring
background (feelings, wishes thoughts blocked from ordinary awareness)
- Bring client into immediate awareness so they can be ‘whole’ again
- Carried out in groups
- IMAGINATIVE TECHNIQUES…more active and dramatic (role-play different aspects of self)
- Empty-chair technique ROLE-PLAY important and themselves, changing chairs for each role
o Resolve ‘unfinished business’
Cognitive Therapies (Cognitive Behaviour Therapy CBT)
- Focus on role of irrational though/self-defeating thought patterns…help clients discover/change
cognitions that underlie problem
- Habitual thought pattern so ingrained…run-off automatically…able to reflect reality (not
unconscious psychodynamic process)
o Focus on both thought and behaviour
Ellis’ Rational-Emotive Therapy
- Irrational thoughts immediate cause of self-defeating emotions…created ABCD Model:
a) Activating event trigger emotion
b) Belief system way person appraises event
c) Consequences emotional/behavioural consequence of appraisal
d) Disputing key to changing emotions by challenging belief system
- Make aware of irrational idea replace with rational alternative
- Given homework assignments help change self-statements…put in challenging situations to
practice control over emotions
Beck’s Cognitive Therapy
- Similar; points out errors of thinking and logic reprogram thought patterns
o Help realize their thoughts cause maladaptive emotional reactions (not situation)
- Also helps for anger/anxiety disorders
- Self-instructional learning: coping approach of giving adaptive self-instructions to self at crucial
phases of coping process
- Combined with other techniques to form effective treatment ‘package’
Behaviour Therapies
1) Behaviour disorders learned in same way as normal behaviours are
2) Maladaptive behaviours can be unlearned by application of classical/operant conditioning
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