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Chapter 14

Chapter 14

Course Code
PSYCH 1000

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Chapter 14
The Helping Relationship
The basic goal of all treatment approaches is to help people change maladaptive, self- defeating
thoughts, feelings, and behavior patterns so that they can live happier and more productive lives
Counseling and Clinical Psychologist
Psychiatrist: medical doctors who specialize in psychotherapy and in biomedical treatments,
such as drug therapy
Psychodynamic therapies
The psychodynamic approach to psychotherapy focuses on internal conflict and unconscious
factor that underline maladaptive behavior
The goal of psychoanalysis is to help clients achieve insight, the conscious awareness of the
psychodynamics that underline their problems
Free Association
Free Association: Freud asked his clients to reline on a couch and to report verbally without
censorship any thoughts, feelings, or images that entered awareness
Freud sat out of sight behind the client so that the client’s thought processes would be
determined primarily by internal factors
Dream Interpretation

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Psychoanalyst believe that dreams express impulses, fantasies, and wished that the client’s
defenses keep in the unconscious during waking hours
In dream interpretation, the analyst tried to help the client search for the unconscious material
contained in the dreams
Resistance: a defensive maneuver that hinger the process of therapy. Resistance can be
manifested in many different ways
Resistance is a sign that anxiety- arousing sensitive material is being approached
A important task analysis is to explore the reason for resistance, both to promote insight and to
guard against the ultimate resistance: the clients decision to drop out of therapy
Transference: occurs when the client responds irrationally to the analyst as if he or she were
an important figure from the clients past
Positive transference: occurs when a client transfers feelings of intense affection,
dependency, or love to the analyst, whereas negative transference: involves irrational
expression of anger, hatred, or disappointment
Analyst believe that until transference reactions are analyzed and resolved, there can be no full
resolution of the client’s problems
Interpretation: is any statement by the therapist intended to provide the client with insight
into his of her behavior or dynamics
Brief Psychodynamics therapies
In classical psychoanalysis, it is not uncommon for a client to be seen five times a week for
five years or more
Like psychoanalysis, brief psychodynamic psychotherapies emphasize understanding the
maladaptive influences of the past and relating them to current patterns of self- defeating
This therapy is liking to focus on helping the client deal with specific life problems rather than
attempting to rebuild there personality
Interpersonal Therapy: This therapy, focuses on the clients current interpersonal problems
like marriage conflict, adjusting to a loss of relationship etc
Interpersonal therapy has proved to work for depression
Humanistic Psychotherapies
Humanistic theorist view humans as capable of consciously controlling their actions and taking
responsibility for their choices and behavior
These theorist also believe that everyone possess inner resources for self- healing and personal
growth, and that disordered behavior reflects a blocking of the natural growth process
Humanistic psychotherapy is seen as a human encounter between equal. The therapist’s goal is
to create an environment in which clients can engage in self- exploration and remove the barriers
that block their natural tendencies towards personal growth

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Humanistic approached focus primarily on the present and future instead of the past
Client Centered Therapy
(Carl Rogers) He became convinced that the important “active ingredient” in therapy is the
relationship that develops between client and therapist, and he began to focus his attention on the
kind of therapeutic environment that seemed most effective in fostering self- exploration and
personal growth
There are three important and interrelated therapist attributes
The client must be free to explore basic attitudes and feeling without fear of being judged or
Rogers believed that, as clients experience a constructive therapeutic relationship, they exhibit
increased self- acceptance, greater self awareness, enhanced self- reliance, increased comfort
with other relationships and improved life functioning
Gestalt Therapy
For people who have psychological difficulties, that background includes important feelings,
wishes, and thoughts that are blocked by ordinary awareness because they would evoke anxiety
Gestalt therapy’s goal is to bring them into immediate awareness because they would evoke
The methods are much more active and dramatic
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