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Chapter 1

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Luigi Galvani, Donald O. Hebb, Gregor Mendel


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Terry Biggs
Chapter
1

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Psychology 1000 Chapter 1 Notes
CHAPTER 1 – Psychology: The Science of Behaviour
Psychology: scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it
Kinds of behaviours studied:
oThoughts
oFeelings
oEmotions
oPhysiological reactions
Psychology as a Basic Applied Science
Basic Research: quest for knowledge for its own sake
oGoals: describe how ppl behave and identify factors that influence or cause a
behaviour
oCarried out in laboratory or real world settings
Applied Research: designed to solve specific practical problems
oGoals: uses principle discovered through basic research to solve practical problems
Robbers Cave Study
oTwo groups of boys were formed called the Eagles and Rattlers
oGot along until the experimenters put them through competitive contests in
which hostility grew between the two
oGot eliminated by putting them into situation where they had to cooperate
and work together (i.e. fixing the water supply system)
oShowed that competition could create hostility and conflicts and be
decreased by making the groups dependant on one another so that they
need to cooperate
Jigsaw Program: requires children to cooperate with one another rather than
compete against each other in order for any of them to succeed
oRequires multi racial group of children (5 or 6) who need to cooperate to meet a
common goal
Goals of Psychology
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Psychology 1000 Chapter 1 Notes
1. Describe how ppl and other animals behave
2. Explain and understand the causes of these behaviours
3. Predict how ppl and animals will behave under certain conditions
4. Influence or control behaviour thru knowledge and control of its causes to
enhance human welfare
Linked the following manner:
oUnderstand causes of behaviour and know when the factors are present or
absent predict when the behaviour will occur
oCause controlled = behaviour controlled
Perspective on Behaviour: Guides to Understanding and Discovery
Three levels of analysis:
oBiological
oPsychological
oEnvironmental
The Importance of Perspectives
Perspectives: vantage points for analyzing behaviour and its biological,
psychological and environmental causes
6 major perspectives:
oBiological
oCognitive
oPsychodynamic
oBehavioural
oHumanistic
oSociocultural
The Biological Perspective: Brain, Genes and Behaviour
Mind- Body Dualism: belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to the
physical laws that govern the body
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Psychology 1000 Chapter 1 Notes
Monism: believes that the mind isn’t a separate entity (mind and body are one)
Biological Perspective: physical side of human nature
o3 factors: thought, emotion and action
Discovery of Brain – Behaviour Relations
Luigi Galvani discovered “nervous energy”
Researchers at University of Berlin discovered that stimulation of specific areas on
surface of
brain resulted in movements of particular muscles in the body
Karl Lashley’s approach was to create lesions (damage) in specific brain
regions and study the effects on learning and memory abilities on animals
1929 – electroencephalogram allowed researchers to measure the electrical
activity of large areas of the brain through electrodes attached to the scalp
Tiny microelectrodes permit recording of electrical activities of brain cells
Electron microscopes enable to study formerly invisible brain structures
Evolution and Behaviour : From Darwin to Evolutionary Psychology
Natural Selection: any inheritable characteristic that increases the likelihood of
survival will be maintained because they will be more likely to survive and
reproduce
Darwin didn’t know the mechanism for the passing on of characteristics until
Gregor Mendel discovered genes
Evolutionary Psychology: focuses on the role of evolution in the development
of behaviour and mental mechanisms
Sociobiology: complex social behaviours are also built into the human species
as products of evolution
Social behaviours in men: aggression, competition and dominance
oIn females: cooperative and nurturers
Sociobiologists believe that one’s genetic survival (i.e. transmission of one’s
genes) is more important than physical survival
Behaviour Genetics
3
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