Scientific attitudes: curiosity, scepticism and open-mindedness driving forces behind scientific inquiry, scientists must remain open-minded to conclusions that are supported by facts even if those conclusions refute their own beliefs. Gathering evidence: steps in the scientific process: hypothesis: an uncertain explanation or prediction about some phenomenon, steps (example - kitty genovese) : Why did no one help: form hypothesis - prediction. If multiple bystanders are present then a diffusion of responsibility will decrease each bystander"s likelihood of intervening: test hypothesis (conduct research) gather evidence. Measure helping: analyze data draw conclusions. Helping decreases as the number of bystanders increase. If not, revise and retest: further research and theory building. Theory of social impact is developed based on these and other findings: new hypothesis derived from theory. Theory tested directly by deriving a new hypothesis and conducting new research: theory: are related to one another set of formal statements that explains how and why certain events.