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Chapter 1

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Wilhelm Wundt, Gestalt Psychology, Sociobiology


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog
Chapter
1

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Chapter 1 - Psychology: The Science of Behaviour
basic research. The quest of knowledge purely for its own sake. Goals are to describe
how people behave and to identify the factors that influence or cause a particular type of
behaviour. Research can be completed in labs or real-world setting
applied research. Designed to solve specific practical problems. Often uses principles
discovered through basic research to solve practical problems (ex: from Robber's Cave to
the Jigsaw Classroom)
jigsaw program. an applied research program in which knowledge gained from basic
research on factors that increase and decrease intergroup hostility was translated into a
cooperative learning program designed to reduce interracial hostility in racially integrated
schools
Goals of psychology
(1) to describe how people and other animals behave
(2) to explain and understand the causes of these behaviours
(3) to predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions
(4) to influence or control behaviour through knowledge and control of its causes to
enhance human welfare
- psychologists consider potential causes at 3 levels of analysis:
(a) biological (b) psychological (c) environmental
6 major perspectives characterize contemporary psychological thought:
(1) biological (2) cognitive (3) psychodynamic
(4) behavioural (5) humanistic (6) socio-cultural perspectives
- mind-body problem - a debate as to whether or not the mind is a spiritual entity that is
separate from the body or a part of our body's activities
mind-body dualism. the philosophical position that the mind is a non-physical entity that
is not subject to physical laws and cannot be reduced to physical processes; body and mind
are separate entities
monism. the philosophical position that mental events are reducible to physical events in
the brain, so that "mind" and body are one and the same
biological perspective. perspective that focuses on the role of biological factors in
behaviour, including biochemical and brain processes as well as genetic and evolutionary
factors
national selection. any inheritable characteristic that increases the likelihood of survival
will be maintained in the species because individuals having the characteristic will be more
likely to survive and reproduce
evolution psychology. focuses on role of evolution in development of behaviour and
mental mechanisms. An organism's biology determines its behavioural capabilities, which
determines its ability to survive
sociobiology. an evolutionary theory of social behaviour that emphasizes the role of
adaptive behaviour in maintaining one's gene in the species' gene pool
behaviour genetics. the study of how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic
factors
cognitive perspective. the view that humans are information processors and problem
solvers whose actions are governed by thought and planning. "Cogitare" is Latin for "to
think"
Origins of the cognitive perspective
(1) structuralism
- an early German school of psychology established by Wilhelm Wundt that attempted to
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