*summary components of identity + perceived internal cause + perceived organization and structure = Theory scientifically useful to personality (1) provide comprehensive framework (2) allow us to future events with some precision (3) stimulate discovery of new knowledge. Look for causes of behaviour in dynamic interplay of inner forces that often conflict with one another. Major shortcoming: there are many concepts that are ambiguous and difficult to operationally define and measure. Hard to test b/c it often explains too much to allow clear-cut behavioural predictions. Psychic energy - generated by instinctual drives, which powers the mind and constantly presses for either direct or indirect release. Ex: buildup energy from sexual drive might be discharged in the form of sexual activity, or indirectly through sexual fantasies. Pleasure principle - id - seeks immediate gratification or release, regardless of rational considerations and environmental realities.