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Chapter

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes -Mary Whiton Calkins, Wilhelm Wundt, Pineal Gland


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Marla Wolf

Page:
of 6
Chapter 1: The Science of Behavior
Psychology: study of behavior and the mind
Behavior: actions that can be observed
Mind: internal states and processes (ex. thoughts, feelings e.t.c)
most important thing, but most difficult to get to
Clinical Psychology: study and treatment of mental disorders
Cognitive psychology: study of mental processes (mind= info processor)
Study of: consciousness, attention, memory, decision making, problem solving
Psycholinguistics: psych of language
Ex. Jumbled words… hppay (first and last letter stay the same)
Biopsychology: effect of genes and hormones on the brain **
Developmental Psych: physical, psychological and social development
Ex. Affects of parenting styles on children
Experimental Psych: focuses on learning, senses and motivations
Often testing done in the lab on nonhumans
Industrial-organizational (I/O) Psych: psych of the workplace
Ex. Teamwork, leadership, job satisfaction
Personality Psych: studies personality and how it influences behavior
Social Psych: examines individuals thoughts, feelings and behavior towards one and
other relationships, first impressions
Scientific Approach
we often take mental shortcuts when forming judgements and make assumptions
we may then fail to consider alternative explanations
in the en we display confirmation bias ( paying attention to information that is
consistent with our beliefs and ignoring all that isa inconsistent)
to avoid this scientists study controlled groups and compare notes
researchers often modify others conclusions or come to a completely diff conclusion
“science is ultimately a self-correcting process”
evaluating validity:
What, exactly is the claim?
Who? is the source credible and trustworthy?
evidence?
other explanations possible? can it be evaluated?
most appropriate conclusion?
PSYCH AS A BASIC AND APPLIED SCIENCE
basic research: looking for knowledge, ex. behavior and factors that influence behavior
applied research: solving specific problems uses basic research to answer problems
Level of analysis
biological level: brian processes, genetic influences
psychological level: thoughts, feelings and motives
environmental level: past and current physical and social environments to which we are
exposed to.
Thinking Critically About Behavior
modern day perspective is shaped by the media
individuals do not search for credibility, research or proof
increase believe in palm readers and astrology
they make important decision based on this
pseudoscience: looks like science but is not
Ex. Astrology, graphology,
PSYCHOLOGY’S GOAL
describe behavior
explain and understand behavior
predict behavior
control behavior
PSYCH’S BROAD SCOPE: A SIMPLE FRAMEWORK
level of analysis
biological level (ex. brain processes)
psychological level (ex. thoughts and feelings)
environmental level (ex. physical and psychological environment’s that we are exposed
to)
nature: the way you’re born ( our biological endowment)
nurture: what you learn during life ( our environment and learning history)
PERSPECTIVES ON BEHAVIOR
psychology has roots in philosophy, biological and physical sciences and medicine
perspectives: different ways of viewing people
PSYCHOLOGY’S INTELLECTUAL ROOTS
mind-body dualism: belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical laws
that govern the body
Rene Descartes (1596 – 1650)
mind & body interact done through pineal gland
believed in dualism
descartes placed the mind in the brain, he maintained that the mind was a spiritual, non
material entity
* dualism: research on physical body cannot reveal info on mind
*monism: mind and body are ONE it meant that the mental events = physical events
Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679)
the mind could be studied by physical processes
believed in monism
John Locke (1632 – 1705)
knowledge gained through senses ( empirically)
root of modern science
1870’s – electro stimulating animal brains
damage in part of brain = specific behavioral or mental problem
Psychophysics: study of how psychological sensation depend on physical aspects (ex:
loudness of sound)
Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882)
theory of evolution contradict beliefs that the mind is spiritual, instead it is a biological
object ( his theory was attacked)
suggested that studying other species would provide insight
EARLY SCHOOLS: STRUCTURALISM AND FUNCTIONALISM
Wilhelm Wundt (1832 – 1920)
opened first experimental psych lab in Germany
believe in structuralism
William James (1842 – 1910)
studied various mental and bio processes
taught at Havard
functionalist
Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930)
studied memory and dreams
first female president of APA ( american psychologist association)
structuralism:
analysis of the mind by breaking it down into basic elements
Studied the mind by getting subjects to describe feeling after being expose to different
stimuli (ex. light, sound, textures)
uses introspection ( looking within) to study sensations
too subjective but lead to cognitive processes
functionalism:
ask questions about how things work and why
influenced by darwin
no longer exists it became:
cognitive psych:
study of mental processes
evolutionary psych:
studies adaptation and behavior
THE PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE: THE FORCES WITHIN
psychodynamic perspective:
causes of behaviour within our personality (emotions, and motives)
emphasizes unconscious mind
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
treated patients suffering form phobias, paralysis, blindness e.t.c by free association
( patients expressed thoughts that came to mind)
psychoanalysis: the annalysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological
forces., propsed humans have sexual/aggressive desires since childhood.
modern psychodynamic theory: doesnt focus on childhood sexuality, focus mor eon
relationships with family members and other caregiversshaoe the views of themselves
and others.
THE BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE: THE POWER OF THE ENVIRONMENT
behavioral perspective: role of the external environment in governing our actions