Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Meta-Analysis, Play Therapy, Anxiety Disorder

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Psych 2301: Chapter 10 Textbook Notes - Prevention
Health promotion: programs designed to increase activities that are beneficial to many as-
pects of physical health
Community psychology: a branch of psychology; focuses on research and practice on the
reciprocal relations between individuals and the community in which they live
Develop interventions at the level of the individual, couple, or family
When a behaviour is followed by a positive outcome, that behaviour is likely to be repeated; neg-
ative outcome following the behaviour decreases likelihood of it being repeated
Parents who argued a lot, depressed mothers, and women who felt isolated tend to drop out of
Mental disorders increase the risk of physical illness
The only suitable way to reduce the burden of mental disorders is through prevention
Based on the principle of early intervention
Prevention programs often run by service providers who aren’t CPs
CPs role is program development, training, supervision, and evaluation
Approaches to Prevention
The Commission on Chronic Illness (1957) identified three types of illness/mental intervention:
1. Primary Intervention: occurs before a disorder has developed; designed to prevent the
development of the disorder
2. Secondary Intervention: occurs when a disorder is evident; treatment
3. Tertiary Intervention: occurs with respect to a chronic disorder; focuses on rehabilita-
tion and long-term adaptation
CP focuses on secondary intervention; services have been added to primary (prevention of prob-
lems) and tertiary (rehabilitation services) intervention
Universal preventive intervention: a program applied to an entire population
Media awareness campaign on the dangers of drinking and driving, promote daily exercise
Selective preventive intervention: a prevention program that targets people who are at
elevated risk of developing a particular disorder or problem
Wearing masks in a hospital during an outbreak
Indicated preventive intervention: a prevention program that targets people who don’t
meet criteria for a disorder, but who have elevated risk and may show detectable, but subclinical
signs of the disorder
WHO defines mental health promotion activities as those designed to increase well-being and re-
Primary prevention: the provision of conditions conducive to good health
Based on a behavioural model of functioning
Doesn’t rely on the concept of disease
Secondary prevention: prevention that targets groups of people who are identified as being
high risk
Similar to selected and indicated prevention
Risk reduction model: an approach to prevention that reduces risks and promotes protective
Psych 2301: Chapter 10 Textbook Notes - Prevention
Risk factors: characteristics of the individual or the environment that render a person more
vulnerable to the development of a problem or disorder, or that are associated with more severe
symptoms (see pg. 367 for full list)
Individual factors: poor nutrition, learning disability, poor social skills, etc.
School context: bullying, peer rejection, deviant peer group, etc.
Family/social factors: single parent, isolation, abuse, parental psychopathology, etc.
Life events and situations: poverty, unemployment, witnessing trauma, migration etc.
Community and cultural factors: isolation, community violence, etc.
Once at-risk individuals are identified, they are targets of prevention programs designed to pro-
tect them from developing the problem/disorder
Utilize the identification of factors associated with resilience (protect high-risk individuals
from developing the problem/disorder) to develop effective prevention program
Protective factors: characteristics of the individual or the environment that render a person
less vulnerable to the development of a problem or disorder
Individual factors: optimism, school achievement, positive self-esteem, etc.
School context: prosocial peer group, school norms against violence, etc.
Family/social factors: family harmony, strong family norms and social values, etc.
Life events and situations: good income and housing
Community and cultural factors: access to support services, group participation, etc.
Incidence rates: the number of new cases of a specific problem
Use this number to determine if the program resulted in fewer people developing a problem
than would have been the case without the prevention program
Number needed to treat: the number of people who need to receive the intervention in or-
der to prevent one person from developing the condition
Promoting Evidence-Based Parenting
Home Visiting Programs
Olds (2002) offered services to low-income teenage single mothers expecting their first child
Home visits by trained nurses during the pregnancy and after the child’s birth
Addressed the mother’s concerns about the pregnancy, delivery, and care of the child
Taught skills in self-care and child care; promoted use of the health care system
Effective in achieving the immediate goal of improving parental care
Benefits for children; reduces child abuse/neglect and in the long term, reduces the number
of arrests, convictions, substance abuse problems, and sexual promiscuity at the age of 15
Improves mothers life by increasing labour force participation and her economic self-suffi-
Nurses completed only an average of 8 visits during the pregnancy and 25 visits during the
child’s first two years (visits lasted up to an hour and a half)
Most beneficial effects found in greater risk families
Triple P
Psych 2301: Chapter 10 Textbook Notes - Prevention
Developed by Matthew Sanders; the “Triple P Positive Parenting Program”
Evidence-based parenting program designed to:
a) Enhance the knowledge, skills, and confidence of parents;
b) Promote safe environments for young people; and
c) Promote children’s competence through positive parenting practices
Multi-level system that provides interventions of gradually increasing intensity, according to the
level of need
Next step is to offer brief (one- or two-session) individualized services by phone or face to
face; address parents’ specific concerns
Parents of children with mild/moderate problems may benefit from a program delivered over
four sessions by a primary health care provider
Parents of children with more severe behaviour problems may require the Standard Triple P,
either in a group or self-directed format
The most intense intervention is the Enhanced Triple P; includes not only parenting skills but
also additional sessions focused on parents’ mood, coping, and partner support
Developed for five different stages in development (infants, toddlers, preschoolers, children in
elementary school, teenagers)
Designed to enhance protective factors and decrease risk factors for child problems
Parents are trained to develop positive relationships with their children, encourage desirable be-
haviour, teach new skills, and manage misbehaviour
Encouraged to adopt developmentally appropriate expectations about child’s behaviour
Importance of taking care of oneself as a parent is also stressed
Involves intense training of practitioners as well as continuing education for those who deliver
the program
Results prove this is effective in helping parents adopt positive parenting practices
Associated with fewer child problems, greater parental confidence, and enhanced parental
Incredible Years
Originally designed by Carolyn Webster-Stratton to help children aged 3-8 who had been identi-
fied as having conduct problems; expanded to cover a wider age range and has been offered as a
prevention program
Uses group discussions, videotaped modeling, and behavioural rehearsal techniques to promote
adult-child interactions that will facilitate children’s development of social competence
Goal is to train parents in skills so they can play with their child, provide praise for positive be-
haviours, and set limits on unacceptable behaviours using time-out, ignoring, appropriate conse-
quences, and problem-solving
Minimum of 12 sessions (additional sessions may be required)
An advanced 9-12 session program targets parents’ interpersonal difficulties by teaching
problem-solving, anger management, communication, emotional regulation skills, and sup-
port-seeking skills
A supplementary program, Supporting Your Child’s Education, helps parents whose children are
experiencing school difficulties