Textbook Notes (270,000)
CA (160,000)
Western (10,000)
PSYCH (5,000)
PSYCH 1000 (1,000)
Dr.Mike (700)
Chapter 9

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Linguistic Relativity, Metacognition, Speech Segmentation


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Chapter
9

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 8 pages of the document.
Kaden VanHelden
Psychology 1000: Chapter 9 – Language and Thinking
Mental representations include images, ideas, concepts, and principles
Language
Language: consists of system of symbols and rules for combining them in ways that can
generate infinite number of possible messages
Psycholinguistics: is the scientific study of psychological aspects of language, such as
how people understand, produce, and acquire language
Adaptive Functions of Language
The development of language allowed humans to adapt to the following demands:
oNeed to create divisions of labor and cooperative social systems
oDevelop social customs and communicate thoughts
oPass on knowledge and wisdom
Through language we share our thoughts, feelings, goals, intentions, desires, needs,
and memories with other people
Language is important in learning
oAllows us to gain information otherwise only attainable through trial-and-error or
by watching someone else
3 Properties of language
Language is a system of symbols and rules
1. Symbolic
a. Use of sounds, signs, gestures
b. Allows for forming and transferring mental representations
2. Structure
a. Rule-governed structures
b. Symbols combined to create meaningful units
3. Generativity
a. Symbols can be combined to generate an infinite number of messages that can
have novel meaning
These 3 properties allow Displacement
oPast, future, imaginary events, objects can be symbolically represented and
communicated
Structure of Language
Surface structure
oConsists of symbols that are used and their order
oRelated to concept of syntax (the rules that govern the order of words)
Deep structure
oRefers to underlying meaning of combined symbols
oRelated to concept of semantics (the meaning of words and sentences)
Surface vs. Deep Structure
Different surface but same deep structure:
1. Sam ate the cake.

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Kaden VanHelden
2. The cake was eaten by Sam.
3. Eaten by Sam the cake was.
(syntax in #3 Is incorrect)
The Hierarchical Structure of Language
Smallest unit of language are phonemes, these are most basic sounds we can produce
oHumans can make about 100 different phonemes
oEnglish language only uses 40
E.g. consonants, th, sh
Phonemes are combined to create morphemes (smallest units of meaning in language)
oE.g. dog, log, talk
oPlayers is made of 3 morphemes
Hierarchy from smallest largest unit
oPhonemes morphemes words phrases sentences discourse
(conversation, paragraphs, books, articles, etc.)
Understanding and Producing Language
Context is very important in understanding language
Bottom-up Processing and Language
Individual components (sounds, shapes of letter, etc.) are unified to create a perception
Top-down Processing and Language
Pre-existing knowledge of words that are stored in long-term memory may influence how
we perceive written or spoken language
oThis explains how we can read sentences with missing vowels fairly easily
Speech segmentation: perceiving where each word within a spoken sentence beings
and ends
Pragmatics: The Social Context of Language
Pragmatics – a knowledge of the practical aspects of using language
Context plays a big role in how language is interpreted
oE.g. Do you have the time? The person being asked won’t just say yes and walk
away, it is implied that if you have the time you also say what it is
Usually people will adjust the rate and language complexity based on the person you’re
talking to (always trying to be as clear as possible)
oTo someone of high importance or high social standing one would talk differently
than with your friends or over a text
Language Functions, the Brain, and Sex Differences
Broca’s area – controls speech production and articulation
Wernicke’s area – controls speech comprehension
Damage to one or more areas can result in aphasia
oImpairment in speech comprehension/production that can be temporary or
permanent
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Kaden VanHelden
Males have more language function in left hemisphere; women share language between
both hemispheres more so than men
oMen more likely to show aphasic symptoms from left hemisphere stroke than
women
Acquiring a First Language
Combination of nature and nurture required to learn first language
oNature = biology
oNurture = environment
Biological Foundations
Language acquisition represents the unfolding of a biologically primed process within a
social learning environment
Language acquisition device (LAD) – an innate biological mechanism that contain the
general grammatical rules common to all languages
oUniversal grammar becomes calibrated to the grammar and syntax of one’s
native tongue
Social Learning Process
Parents talk to their children in a higher pitch, child-friendly language when teaching
them new words along with pointing things out and saying what they are
Children’s language development is strongly governed by adults’ positive reinforcement
of appropriate language and negative reinforcement or correction of inappropriate
verbalizations
Parents do not typically correct their children’s grammar as language skills are
developing
Language acquisition support system (LASS) – represents factors in the social
environment that facilitate the learning of language
Developmental Timetable and Sensitive Periods
Language has sensitive period in young children
oThose who don’t learn by puberty are unable to acquire normal language skills
oThis applies to sign language as well
Table 9.1 shows speech characteristics of children from 1 month to 5 years of age
Bilingualism: Learning a Second Language
2nd languages are spoken best when learned during sensitive period of childhood
Most studies show bilingual speakers score higher in cognitive processing tests than
those only speaking one language
Immigrant children learn best when learning their own native language as well as
English rather than just English
Learning a Second Language: Is Earlier Better?
Yes, studies have shown that the early second language speakers performed superior to
those who started learning later, but still had same number of years of exposure
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version