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Chapter 4

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Anemia, Chromosome, Heritability


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Chapter
4

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Chapter 4 Psychology: Genetics
The way we study the genetic basis of almost anything is to look at the genetic differences
and sameness between twins. You look for twins who were raised apart.
Exam: October 18th 9 11:00 AM NCB 117
Discussion #1 should be open now. Youve been assigned to a discussion group of roughly 20
people and our task is to look at a particular chapter in ask Dr. Mike to look at Chapter 3 and
you must ask one chapter about chapter 3 which isnt currently in chapter 3 that isnt in that
book and answer someone else’s group.
Genetics of Behavior
Nature vs Nurture debate. Is a particular trait we observer due to nature (Born with) or
Nurture (Something Learned). Someone said that it is probably both.
Genes:
Strandlike molecules of DNA
Linked on chromosomes.
Karyotype: Genetic Blueprint.
Females: XX
Males: Xy
Genes (DNA) à RNA à Protein Molecules (Sequence of Amino Acids)
-The influence of genes is through protein synthesis… There are no genes for” a particular
attribute.
Gene “forIntelligence?
-Reaction time is a pretty good measure of IQ
The answer is not just nature because the environment can influence protein synthesis as
well. Genes determine the range of possibilities, but not the degree of expression. How tall
you grow in a window is determined by the environment.
Critical Period
>Environmental Exposure at specific interval is critical.
>e.g. white-crowned sparrow must hear adult song between 7th and 60th day.
Genotype: Set of genes inherited
Phenotype: Outward expression of genotype (Characteristics, behaviors, etc.)
WE cannot infer genotype from Phenotype.
Outward characteristics may not indicate underlying genetic contribution ie: Hair Colour.
Homozygous - Same Alleles
Phenotypic outcome is predictable.
Heterozygous -Different Alleles
Dominant
Produces effect in either homozygous or heterozygous mode.
Recessive
Produces only in homozygous mode.
How do genes work”?
What is the outcome with recessive genes?
How is our more complex behaviour coded?
Not always one or the other… sometimes a blend.
Eg. Sickle cell Anemia
Polygenetic Effects
>Traits related to action of more than 1 gene or chromosome. (Intelligence)
Heritability
h^2 = Variance Due to Genes / Total Variance
-Estimate of how much observed variability due to genetic factors alone.
h^2 = 0.0 (Due to Environment) 1.0 (Due to Genes)
Taps relative contribution of genes to overall variation in population. Applies to groups, not
to individuals.
h^2 of Intelligence, Notion seems reasonable.
But remember; environment can alter what seem to be internally coded traits. E.g. North
Americans were 15 cm taller in 1962 than in 1862. Genes cant change in 100 years.
Heritability of Intelligence, Family Relationship Studies
Identical twins - 100% (Genes)
Fraternal twins - 50%
Parent, Sibling 50%
Grandparent, uncle, aunt 25%
1st Cousin 12.5%
There are absolutely stunning psychological trait similarities for identical twins even if they
were raised apart. Both like had many similarities.
Behavior Genetics
Isnt all behavior ultimately due to genes?
How does adaptation work?
Is aggression innate?
Chromosome Disorders
Sex Chromosomes
Normal ix XX or Xy
Can get: XXX
XO/
XXy
Down Syndrome
-1 extra chromosome on 21st pair.
-Marked by: Nervous system abnormality, mild to moderate IQ impairment, shorter life
expectancy, physical appearance, mongolism.
Due to accumulation of Amyloid protein (also in Alzheimers patients)
Note, you can alleviate symptoms with intense cognitive stimulation.
Not hereditary due to faulty meiotic division.
Incidence related to the mother and fathers age.
Risk is about 1 in 1000, after 40 years of age risk increases 6 in 1000.
If evolution could fit in a year.
January 1st > Life Begins
Feb. to Oct. > Not Much
Mid Nov. 1st > Vertebrates.
Dec 11th > Mammals
Dec 19th > Birds
Dec 24th > Primates
11:54PM on 31st > Homo Sapiens
Humans have not been around for very long.
Charles Darwin’s supports the idea of Natural Selection and survival of the fittest.
Adaptation: Changing to meet environmental needs. Proximal vs. Distal causes.
Proximal vs Distal causes.
Immediate Mechanisms Evolutionary Processes
Functional approach very powerful, because ultimately everything is due to genes.
But… phenotype =/= genotype.
-Traits are not necessarily due to natural selection. Traits can be the result of all kinds of
things.
No Natural Selection
-Genetic Drift, founder effect…. Chance because of change. Afrikaner population, Northern
Europeans being more depressed because of some seasonal disorder.
-Correlates of Structure, other related trait selected.
Aggression
Freud
, Eros vs Thanatos
Eros, all the good stuff like mingling being happy, procreating.
Thanatos, bad energy like anger suicide etc
Freud believed that Thanatos was a redirection of bad energy into a safer direction.
Lorenz
, Hydraulic model.
Aggressive instinct builds up over time untiltriggeredby external stimulus.
-Releasers or Sign Stimuli.
-Fixed-action patterns.
Buildup up of energy? Not consistent.
Releasers? Yes, but high variability
Probability of aggression over time? Species Specific.
Leonard Berkowitz
Frustration-Aggression hypothesis. The more frustrated one gets or upset the more likely one
is to attack you.
TEXT -Ch. 4
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Chapter 4 Psychology: Genetics
The way we study the genetic basis of almost anything is to look at the genetic differences
and sameness between twins. You look for twins who were raised apart.
Exam: October 18th 9 11:00 AM NCB 117
Discussion #1 should be open now. Youve been assigned to a discussion group of roughly 20
people and our task is to look at a particular chapter in ask Dr. Mike to look at Chapter 3 and
you must ask one chapter about chapter 3 which isnt currently in chapter 3 that isnt in that
book and answer someone else’s group.
Genetics of Behavior
Nature vs Nurture debate. Is a particular trait we observer due to nature (Born with) or
Nurture (Something Learned). Someone said that it is probably both.
Genes:
Strandlike molecules of DNA
Linked on chromosomes.
Karyotype: Genetic Blueprint.
Humans: 23 Pairs, 22 Autosomes + Sex Chromosomes
Females: XX
Males: Xy
Genes (DNA) à RNA à Protein Molecules (Sequence of Amino Acids)
-The influence of genes is through protein synthesis… There are no genes for” a particular
attribute.
Gene “forIntelligence?
-Reaction time is a pretty good measure of IQ
The answer is not just nature because the environment can influence protein synthesis as
well. Genes determine the range of possibilities, but not the degree of expression. How tall
you grow in a window is determined by the environment.
Critical Period
>Environmental Exposure at specific interval is critical.
>e.g. white-crowned sparrow must hear adult song between 7th and 60th day.
Genotype: Set of genes inherited
Phenotype: Outward expression of genotype (Characteristics, behaviors, etc.)
WE cannot infer genotype from Phenotype.
Outward characteristics may not indicate underlying genetic contribution ie: Hair Colour.
Homozygous - Same Alleles
Phenotypic outcome is predictable.
Heterozygous -Different Alleles
Dominant
Produces effect in either homozygous or heterozygous mode.
Recessive
Produces only in homozygous mode.
How do genes work”?
What is the outcome with recessive genes?
How is our more complex behaviour coded?
Not always one or the other… sometimes a blend.
Eg. Sickle cell Anemia
Polygenetic Effects
>Traits related to action of more than 1 gene or chromosome. (Intelligence)
Heritability
h^2 = Variance Due to Genes / Total Variance
-Estimate of how much observed variability due to genetic factors alone.
h^2 = 0.0 (Due to Environment) 1.0 (Due to Genes)
Taps relative contribution of genes to overall variation in population. Applies to groups, not
to individuals.
h^2 of Intelligence, Notion seems reasonable.
But remember; environment can alter what seem to be internally coded traits. E.g. North
Americans were 15 cm taller in 1962 than in 1862. Genes cant change in 100 years.
Heritability of Intelligence, Family Relationship Studies
Identical twins - 100% (Genes)
Fraternal twins - 50%
Parent, Sibling 50%
Grandparent, uncle, aunt 25%
1st Cousin 12.5%
There are absolutely stunning psychological trait similarities for identical twins even if they
were raised apart. Both like had many similarities.
Behavior Genetics
Isnt all behavior ultimately due to genes?
How does adaptation work?
Is aggression innate?
Chromosome Disorders
Sex Chromosomes
Normal ix XX or Xy
Can get: XXX
XO/
XXy
Down Syndrome
-1 extra chromosome on 21st pair.
-Marked by: Nervous system abnormality, mild to moderate IQ impairment, shorter life
expectancy, physical appearance, mongolism.
Due to accumulation of Amyloid protein (also in Alzheimers patients)
Note, you can alleviate symptoms with intense cognitive stimulation.
Not hereditary due to faulty meiotic division.
Incidence related to the mother and fathers age.
Risk is about 1 in 1000, after 40 years of age risk increases 6 in 1000.
If evolution could fit in a year.
January 1st > Life Begins
Feb. to Oct. > Not Much
Mid Nov. 1st > Vertebrates.
Dec 11th > Mammals
Dec 19th > Birds
Dec 24th > Primates
11:54PM on 31st > Homo Sapiens
Humans have not been around for very long.
Charles Darwin’s supports the idea of Natural Selection and survival of the fittest.
Adaptation: Changing to meet environmental needs. Proximal vs. Distal causes.
Proximal vs Distal causes.
Immediate Mechanisms Evolutionary Processes
Functional approach very powerful, because ultimately everything is due to genes.
But… phenotype =/= genotype.
-Traits are not necessarily due to natural selection. Traits can be the result of all kinds of
things.
No Natural Selection
-Genetic Drift, founder effect…. Chance because of change. Afrikaner population, Northern
Europeans being more depressed because of some seasonal disorder.
-Correlates of Structure, other related trait selected.
Aggression
Freud
, Eros vs Thanatos
Eros, all the good stuff like mingling being happy, procreating.
Thanatos, bad energy like anger suicide etc
Freud believed that Thanatos was a redirection of bad energy into a safer direction.
Lorenz
, Hydraulic model.
Aggressive instinct builds up over time untiltriggeredby external stimulus.
-Releasers or Sign Stimuli.
-Fixed-action patterns.
Buildup up of energy? Not consistent.
Releasers? Yes, but high variability
Probability of aggression over time? Species Specific.
Leonard Berkowitz
Frustration-Aggression hypothesis. The more frustrated one gets or upset the more likely one
is to attack you.
TEXT -Ch. 4
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