Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence, Mental Age, Lewis Terman

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16 Feb 2016
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Kaden VanHelden 1
Psychology 1000: Chapter 10 – Intelligence
Intelligence – the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to
deal adaptively with the environment
Intelligence in Historical Perspective
Sir Francis Galton: Quantifying Mental Ability
Looked at family trees and seemed to find a link between eminence and genius in
families
Was convinced eminent people had “inherited mental constitutions” that made them
more successful than those who did not inherit them
Made up his own biological tests to determine “efficiency of the nervous system”
oReaction speed
oHand strength
oSensory acuity
Methods were later proven to NOT correlate with socially relevant measures of mental
ability
oE.g. academic and occupational success
Alfred Binet’s Mental Tests
Was commissioned by France’s Ministry of Public Education to develop a standard
intelligence test for school children
Focused on solving practical problem instead of supporting a theory like Galton
Made 2 assumptions about intelligence
oMental abilities develop with age
oRate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of person and is
fairly constant over time
Had teachers develop questions suitable for every age group and used the kids ability to
answer questions to develop something called mental age
oMental age is the level of problems one is capable of solving
8-year old solving 10-year old questions has mental age of 10
Stern took mental age and created the intelligence quotient with the fraction of mental
age over chronological age x100
oAn IQ of 100 would be normal for one’s age
oThis scale starts to fall apart when dealing with adults
20-year old with 80-year old mental ago = IQ of 400
Scales today now compare your ability to solve problems with the average ability of
those your age
Binet’s Legacy: An Intelligence-Testing Industry Emerges
Lewis Terman made his own scale with ideas from Binet and called it the Stanford-Binet
oBecame widely accepted by mid-1920’s
oUsed as mental-aptitude test for U.S. soldiers entering WWI
Next major IQ scale was WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale)
oFocused less on verbal skills and measured wider range of verbal and non-verbal
abilities
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oAlso scale made for children (WISC)
oWAIS-III is most common IQ test used in North America today
The Nature of Intelligence
Psychometric approach attempts to map structure of intellect and to discover the kinds
of mental competencies that underlie test performance
Cognitive processes approach studies the specific thought processes that underlie those
mental competencies
The Psychometric Approach: The Structure of Intellect
Psychometric – the statistical study of psychological tests
oLooks to measure the abilities that underlie individual differences in performance
Factor Analysis
Researchers are looking to find the mental abilities of the human mind
Administer diverse measures of mental abilities and then correlate them
oIf 2 separate tests correlate, likely using same underlying mental skill
Factor analysis reduce large number of measures to a smaller number of clusters, with
each containing variables that correlate highly with one another but less highly with
variables in others clusters
oMath related skills might be one cluster, verbal skills another
The g Factor: Intelligence as General Mental Capacity
G factor – general intelligence, seems to be at the core of intelligence
oCarries over across a wide variety of skills and mental abilities
E.g. math and English, education and work
Intellectual performance is determined partly by g factor and partly by whatever special
abilities might be required to perform that particular task
Intelligence as Specific Mental Abilities
L.L. Thurstone believed that human mental performance depends not on a general
factor but primary mental abilities
Would say that the correlation within a cluster was caused more by a specific skills than
a general factor
Most researchers believe to be around 100 specific mental factors influencing
intelligence
oMore complex than a g-factor
More feasible to raise specific mental skills than “general intelligence”
Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence
Crystalized intelligence – ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current
problems
oVocab and info tests are good measures
oRelies on ability to retrieve learned info from long-term memory
oIncreases with age and remains stable in late adulthood
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Fluid intelligence – defined as ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations for
which personal experience does not provide a solution
oInspired from g factor idea of intelligence
oInductive reasoning and creative problem-solving
oDependent on efficient functioning of central nervous system
oRequires ability to reason abstractly, think logically, and managed info in short-
term memory so new problems can be solved on the blackboard of the mind
oDecreases in late adulthood
Carroll’s Three-Stratum Model: A Modern Synthesis
Establishes 3 levels of mental skills
oGeneral (g factor)
oBroad (8 broad factors)
oNarrow (70 highly specific cognitive abilities)
Cognitive Process Approaches: The Nature of Intelligent Thinking
Cognitive process theories – explore specific information processing and cognitive
processes that underlie intellectual ability
Triarchic theory of intelligence – addresses both psychological process involved in
intelligent behaviour and the diverse forms that intelligence can take
3 components of Triarchic theory developed by Sternberg
1. Metacomponents
Higher-order processes used to plan and regulate task performance
Include problem-solving, formulating hypotheses and strategies,
testing them logically, and evaluating performance feedback
Is believed that metacomponents are source of individual differences in
fluid intelligence
2. Performance components
Actual mental processes used to perform tasks
Include perceptual processing, retrieving appropriate memories and
schemas and generating responses
3. Knowledge acquisition components
Allow us to learn from our experiences, store information in memory and
combine new insights with previously acquired information
These are sources of individual differences in crystallized intelligence
Sternberg believed there were 3 types of intelligence
1. Analytical intelligence
Involves kinds of academically oriented problem-solving skills measured
by traditional intelligence tests
2. Practical intelligence
Skills needed to cope with everyday demands and to manage people
effectively
3. Creative intelligence
Mental skills needed to deal adaptively with novel problems
Broader Conceptions of Intelligence: Beyond Mental Competencies
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