Counselling and clinical psychologists: psychologists, who typically hold a. Ph. d. or psy. d. degree, have received 5 or more years of intensive training and supervision in a variety of psychotherapeuic techniques as well as training in research and psychological assessment techniques. Psychiatrists: medical doctors who specialize in psychotherapy and biomedical treatments, such as drug therapy. Psychodynamic theories - focuses on internal conlict and unconscious factors that underlie maladapive behaviour. * the goal of psychoanalysis is to help clients achieve insight, the conscious awareness of the psychodynamics that underlie their problems. Free associaion: in psychoanalysis, the procedure of verbalizing all thoughts that enter consciousness without censorship. Resistance: largely unconscious maneuvers that protect clients from dealing with anxiety-arousing material in therapy. Interpretaion: in psychoanalysis, a statement made by the analyst that is intended to promote insight in the client. * classical psychoanalysis is an expensive and ime-consuming process, for the goal is no less than rebuilding the client"s personality.