Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Decay Theory, Blood Plasma, Prospective Memory

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Chapter 8
Memory
1
Chapter 8:
Memory
- Processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and
information
Memory as Information Processing
- Encoding is getting information into the system by translating it into a neural
code that the brain can process
- Storage involves retaining information over time
- Once information is stored it must be filed away and saved
- Retrieval involves pulling information out of storage when in need
- We all occasionally forget and distort information and even at times
remember things that never happened
Three Component Model
- Three major components of memory: sensory, short term and long term
Sensory Memory
- Holds incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognized
- Different subsystems “sensory registers” are the initial information
processors
- Iconic store is our visual sensory register, but it’s very brief
- Auditory sensory register is called the echoic store and the echoic memory
lasts longer than the iconic
Short-Term/Working Memory
- Most information in sensory memory just fades away
- Short-term memory holds information that we are conscious of at any given
working memory
Memory Codes
- Information leaves sensory memory but must be represented by some type
of code if it’s going to be retained in short or long term memory
- Can take various forms
o Visual encoding (mental image)
o Phonological encoding (sound)
o Semantic encoding (meaning of stimulus)
o Motor coding (physical actions)
Capacity and Duration
- Limit on short term memory capacity concerns the number of meaningful
units that can be recalled
- Combining individual items into larger units of meaning is called chunking
- Rehearsing information can extend the time it stays in our short term
memory (maintenance rehearsal)
- Focusing on the meaning of information or relating it to other things we
already know (elaborative rehearsal)
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Chapter 8
Memory
2
Putting Short Term Memory to Work
- Items that remain on the short-term loading dock long enough eventually get
transferred into the long-term memory
- Maintain some of the information to the auditory working memory
- The spatial working memory allows us to temporarily store and manipulate
images and spatial information
- Episodic buffer is the temporary storage where information from long term
memory can be integrated and made available for conscious awareness
- Central executive directs the action
Long Term Memory
- Vast library of more durable stored memories
- Serial Position Effect
o U-Shaped pattern where words at the beginning and end of the list are
easiest for participants to recall
o Recall is influenced by word’s position in a series of items
o Primacy Effect (superior recall of early words)
Due to transfer of early words into long-term memory
o Recency Effect (superior recall of most recent words)
Due to short term memory
Encoding: Entering Information
Effortful and Automatic Processing
- Effortful processing is encoding that is initiated intentionally and requires
conscious attention
- Automatic processing is encoding that occurs without intentions and
requires minimal attention
Levels of Processing: When Deeper is Better
- Structural encoding is when you notice only the way the word looks
- Phonological encoding is when the word is sounded out and judged if it
rhymes with another word
- Semantic encoding is when you have to pay attention to the meaning
- Levels of processing is a concept that states that more deeply we process
information the better it will be remembered
- Semantic coding usually involves the deepest meaning of information
Exposure and Rehearsal
- Rehearsal goes beyond exposure because we have to think about the info
- Maintenance rehearsal involves simple repetition
o Most useful for keeping information active in short-term memory
- Elaborative rehearsal focuses on the meaning of information and involves
deeper processing than maintenance
o Should be more effective in transferring information into long-term
memory
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Chapter 8
Memory
3
Organization and Imagery
- Organizing a set of stimuli is a good way to enhance memory
- Organization can enhance the meaningfulness of information and serve as a
cue that helps to trigger our memory for the information it represents
Hierarchies and Chunking
- Hierarchy takes advantage of the principle that memory is enhanced by
associations between concepts
- Logical hierarchy enhances our understanding of how diverse elements are
related
- Chunking refers to combining individual items into larger units of meaning
Mnemonic Devices
- Mnemonic device is any type of memory aid
o Hierarchy, chunking, acronyms
- Recognize information into more meaningful units and provide extra cues to
help retrieve information from long-term memory
Visual Imagery
- Dual coding theory (verbal and non-verbal codes) use both codes to enhance
memory
o At least one code will be able to support recall
- Abstract concepts are easier to encode semantically than visually
- Method of loci
o Imagine a physical environment with a sequence of distinct
landmarks and associate each place/item in it with a concept
How Prior Knowledge Works
- Long term memory is densely populated with semantic codes that represent
the meaning of information
Schemas: Our Mental Organizers
- Schema is an organized pattern of thought about some aspect of the world
- We form schemas through experience
o Strongly influence the way we encode material in memory
- Create a perceptual set, which is a readiness to perceive information in a
certain way
Storage: Retaining Information
Memory as a Network
Associative Networks
- Massive network of associated ideas and concepts
- Spreading activation of related concepts throughout the network
- Priming refers to the activation of once concept by another
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Document Summary

Processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information. Encoding is getting information into the system by translating it into a neural code that the brain can process. Once information is stored it must be filed away and saved. Retrieval involves pulling information out of storage when in need. We all occasionally forget and distort information and even at times remember things that never happened. Three major components of memory: sensory, short term and long term. Holds incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognized. Different subsystems sensory registers are the initial information processors. Iconic store is our visual sensory register, but it"s very brief. Auditory sensory register is called the echoic store and the echoic memory lasts longer than the iconic. Most information in sensory memory just fades away. Short-term memory holds information that we are conscious of at any given working memory.

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