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Chapter 10

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: University Of Western Ontario, Heritability, Syphilis


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Prof
Chapter
10

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Intelligence
Socially constructed phenomenon or culture-specific
Definition
oAbility to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively and to deal adaptively with the
environment
Intelligence In Historical Perspective
Sir Francis Galton: Quantifying Mental Ability
Showed eminence and genius seemed to occur within certain families
Eminent people had “inherited mental constitutions” that made them more fit for thinking than their less
successful counterparts – biological basis
Showing people who were more socially & occupationally successful would perform better on a variety
of tasks measuring “efficiency of the nervous system.”
Alfred Binet’s Mental Tests
Modern intelligence-testing movement began at turn of the 20th century
Alfred Binet was commissioned to develop a modern intelligence test
Made two assumptions about intelligence:
oMental abilities develop with age
oRate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of person and is fairly constant
over time
Result of the test was score called mental age
Mental age concept expanded by Stern to Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
oRatio of mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100
Current tests don't use mental age
oPerson's performance relative to the scores of others
Binet’s Legacy: Intelligence-Testing Industry
Stanford-Binet Test
oOnly verbal abilities
oAccepted in North America as standard for measuring mental aptitude
oUsed for WWI recruit intelligence testing
oImportant for educational reform
Age 3 Point to object that serve various functions
“Goes on feet”
Age 4 Repeat a list of words or digits (car, dog)
Define words such as ball and bat
Repeat 10-word sentences
Count up to four objects
Solve problems such as “in daytime it is light; at night it is dark”
Age 6 State the differences between similar items such as bird and dog
Count up to nine blocks
Solve analogies such as an inch is short, a mile is…
Age 9 Solve verbal problems such as “tell me a number that rhymes with tree”
Solve simple arithmetic problems such as “If I buy 4 cents' worth of candy and give the storekeeper 10
cents, how much money will I get back?”
Repeat four digits in reverse order.
Age 12 Define words such as muzzle
Repeat five digits in reverse order
Solve verbal absurdities such as “Bill's feet are so big he has to pull his trousers over his head.”

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Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale/Children Scale
oReplied on verbal and non-verbal abilities
oCurrently the most popular intelligence tests in North America
The Nature of Intelligence
Two approaches to the study of intelligence
oPsychometric Approach
Map structure of intellect and to discover kinds of mental competencies that underlie test
performance
Statistical study
oCognitive Processes Approach
Studies specific thought processes underlying those mental competencies
Psychometric Approach: Structure of Intellect
Psychometrics
oStatistical study of psychological tests
Tries to identify & measure abilities that underlie individual differences in performance
Tries to provide a measurement-based map of the mind
Factor Analysis
Administer diverse measures of mental abilities and correlate them with others
oIf certain tests are correlated highly with another then performance on these tests probably
reflects same underlying mental skill
Large numbers of tests are correlated with one another many correlation coefficients difficult to
determine visually patterning of test scores
Factor Analysis
oReduces large number of measures to a smaller number of factors
oAllows for inference of underlying characteristic accounting for links among variables
oDoes not provide information on the actual ability underlying scores
The g Factor: Intelligence as General Mental Capacity
Grades in subjects, such as English & Math - almost always positively correlated
Spearman
oIntellectual performance determined partly by:
g factor (general intelligence)
Whatever special abilities might be required to perform that particular task
og Factor
Cuts across virtually all tasks
Constitutes the core of intelligence
oPredictor of both academic and job performance
oPredict job success even better than do measures of specific abilities
Intelligence as Specific Mental Abilities
Thurstone: focused on the imperfect positive correlations
Human mental performance depends not on g factor but rather on seven distinct primary mental
abilities

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Performance on a given verbal or mathematical task would be influenced more by the specific skills
represented in the relevant cluster than by any g factor
Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence
Cattell and Horn proposed a new model of intelligence
Broke down general intelligence into two different but related subtypes of g (correlation of about 0.50)
oCrystallized intelligence (gc)
Ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems
Vocabulary and information tests are good measures
Basis for expertise
Depends on ability to retrieve previously learned info, schemas & practice – long term
memory
oFluid intelligence (gf)
Ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations
Personal experience does not provide a solution
Involves inductive reasoning and creative problem-solving skills
Dependent on efficient functioning of central nervous system
Requires abilities to reason abstractly, think logically, & manage information in working
(short-term) memory
We progress from using fluid intelligence to depending more on crystallized intelligence – essence of
wisdom
Carroll's Three-Stratum Model: A Modern Synthesis
Three-Stratum Theory of Cognitive Abilities
oEstablishes three levels of mental skills—general, broad, and
narrow
oTop
g factor thought to underlie most mental activity
oMiddle
Eight broad intellectual factors
Arranged from L to R - extent to which they are
correlated with g
Fluid intelligence most strongly related to g, then
crystallized intelligence, indicating importance of the Cattell-Horn factors
Other broad abilities involve
basic cognitive functions such
as memory and learning,
perceptual abilities, and speed
of mental functioning, - some
resemble Thurstone's primary
mental abilities
oBottom
Nearly 70 highly specific
cognitive abilities that feed into
broader second-stratum
Ability Name Description
S-Space Reasoning about visual scenes
V-Verbal Comprehension Understanding verbal statements
W-Word Fluency Producing verbal statements
N-Number Facility Dealing with numbers
P-Perceptual Speed Recognizing visual patterns
M-Rote Memory Memorizing
R-Reasoning Dealing with novel problems
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