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Chapter 1

Psychology 2010-The Human Mind Chapter 1,3,5-7

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Western University
Psychology 2010A/B
Terry Biggs

CHAPTER  1-­  INTRODUCTION Folk  psychology:  an  umbrella  term  for  various  assumptions  and  theories  based  on  the  everyday behaviour  of  ourselves  and  others Cognition:  the  mental  action  or  process  of  acquiring  knowledge  and  understanding  through  thought, experience  and  the  senses -­  key:  the  mental  action  of  knowing Cognitive  Psychology  and  Information  Processing Three  stages 1950s-­1960s -­  rapid  progression -­  methods  of  traditional  psychophysics  -­  scientific  investigation  of  the  relationship between  sensation  and  stimulus -­  experimental  psychology Mid  1970s -­  fuelled  by  consumption  analysis -­  arrival  of  cognitive  sciences Mid  1980s -­  evidence  from  neuropsychology  and  animal  neurophysiology -­  imaging  techniques;;  to  observe  brain  in  action Bit:  binary  digit;;  the  most  basic  unit  of  information.  Every  event  that  occurs  in  a  situation  with  two equally  likely  outcomes  provides  one  “bit”  of  information Information  Theory -­  processing  is  the  idea  that  information  reduces  uncertainty  in  the  mind  of  the  receiver -­  amount  of  info  provided  by  a  given  message  is  proportional  to  the  probability  that  that particular  message  will  occur -­  idea  underlying  information-­processing  theory  -­-­>  information  provided  by  a  particular message  is  not  determined  solely  by  its  content,  but  rather  by  the  whole  array  of  possible  messages  of which  this  particular  message  is  just  one -­  information  theory  -­-­>  the  information  provided  by  a  particular  event  is  inversely  related  to  the probability  of  its  occurrence Early  Testing  of  Information  Theory Hick  1952-­  describes  the  time  it  takes  for  a  person  to  make  a  decision  as  a  result  of  the possible  choices  he  or  she  has;;  i.e.  increasing  number  of  choices  will  increase  the  decision  time logarithmically -­  lights  arranged  with  key  responses  by  participants -­  stimulus  information  is  tightly  linked  with  processing  time:  the  more  info  a  signal  provides  the more  time  it  takes  a  subject  to  produce  the  appropriate  response Hyman  (1953)  Verbal  responses  to  a  varying  number  of  lights -­  increasing  number  of  equally  probable  alternatives  from  one  to  eight  produced  an  increase  in response  time -­  made  the  occurrence  of  some  signals  more  frequent  than  that  of  others -­  response  time  reduced  to  the  frequent  signals -­  introduces  sequential  dependencies  into  the  presentation  of  signals  (lights  followed  by  others  at specific  frequencies)  -­-­>  responses  became  faster  as  a  signal’s  probability  increased  and  slower  as  it decreased -­  proved  that  the  time  it  took  a  participant  was  not  determined  solely  by  the  stimulus  itself  but the  entire  complex  of  situations  of  which  that  particular  signal  was  just  one -­  takes  longer  to  react  to  an  improbable  stimulus  (more  information),  than  to  a  probable  one (conveys  less  info)  (The  information  conveyed  by  a  stimulus  was  varied  in  3  ways:  "(a)  the  number  of  equally  probable alternatives  from  which  it  could  be  chosen,  (b)  the  proportion  of  times  it  could  occur  relative  to  the  other possible  alternatives,  and  (c)  the  probability  of  its  occurrence  as  a  function  of  the  immediately  preceding stimulus  presentation.) Limitations  on  Information  Testing -­  the  time  it  takes  to  press  keys  or  provide  a  verbal  response  (like  in  the  previous  experiments) is  a  limitation  on  information-­-­>  therefore  the  time  it  takes  for  the  information  to  flow  through  the nervous  system -­  amount  of  visual  information  a  person  can  process  has  limitations -­  more  visual  signals-­-­>  more  time  for  response -­  therefore,  capacity  limitation  for  the  amount  of  info  it  can  handle  within  a  fixed  period of  time Webster  and  Thompson  (1953) -­  aircraft  call  signals  and  three  unrelated  random  words -­  call  signals-­  10  possible  outcomes,  words-­  1152  possible  outcomes -­  good  idea  of  what  the  call  signal  would  be  but  no  idea  what  the  words  would  be -­  could  not  identify  more  than  one  word -­  suggestion:  there  are  limits  to  our  nervous  system’s  capacity  for  information  processing -­  when  two  messages  arrive  simult.  the  amount  of  interference  between  them  depends upon  the  amount  of  information  they  convey -­  limit  is  one  of  information  not  of  stimulation Hick  and  Hyman -­  showed  that  people  respond  faster  to  expected  stimuli  than  unexpected -­  significance  to  all  this:  people  deal  with  overload  of  their  capacity  to  process  information  by  attending to  only  some  signal  information -­  humans  are  NOT  passive  receivers,  rather,  active  selectors  of  information  from  the environment i.e.  Hick:  there  is  an  upper  limit  to  the  amount  of  information  that  a  person  can  process  in  a  unit time Models  of  Information  Processing Two  models 1.  Broadbent’s  Filter  Model 2.  Waugh  and  Norman’s  Model  of  Information-­  Processing Distracted  Driving  (Think  Twice  Section) -­  Strayer,  Drews,  Johnston -­  tested  drivers  with  phones  while  driving,  hands  free  while  driving  and  no  phone -­  using  a  cell  phone  can  be  deadly  even  if  you  never  take  your  eyes  off  the  road-­-­>  can  affect what  you  see  (i.e.  most  could  not  even  recall  signs  and  billboards  even  if  they  were  staring  at  them longer  than  people  without  phones) Broadbent’s  Filter  Model -­  we  focus  on  limitations  and  how  we  develop  processes  to  deal  with  those  limitations -­  analysis:  what  are  the  costs  and  benefits  of  expecting  one  type  of  information  rather  than  another? -­  First  Complete  theory  of  attention:  Broadbent’s  F  Model -­  information  processing  is  restricted  by  Channel  Capacity Channel  Capacity:  the  maximum  amount  of  information  that  can  be  transmitted  by  an information-­processing  device  (originally  suggested  by  Shannon  and  Weaver) -­  suggests  that  the  entire  nervous  system  can  be  regarded  as  a  single  channel  -­  with  limits  to  the  rate  at which  it  can  transmit  stimulus  info -­  overloading-­  prevented  by  selective  device/filter -­  after  filter  is  a  capacity  free  sensory  buffer/temporary  store -­  in  the  case  of  two  or  more  signals: -­  enter  buffer  together -­  buffer  extracts  imple  stimulus  characteristics  such  as  colour  voice  or  spatial  location -­  filter  operates:  selecting  messages  that  share  some  basic  physical  characteristic  -­-­-­>  passes  to the  limited  capacity  system  (responsible  for  the  higher  order  stimulus  attributes  i.e.  forming,  meaning)-­-­> any  messages  that  were  not  selected  are  subject  to  decay  with  passage  of  time -­  filter  theory  suggestions: -­  the  data  on  attention  available  for  that  time  period -­  Broadbent  experiment -­  three  pairs  of  digits -­  sequence  73-­42-­15,  with  each  number  occurring  in  different  ears  at  the  same  time -­  when  asked  to  recall,  the  responses  :  741,  325  or  325h,  741-­-­>  65% -­  when  asked  to  recall  in  the  right  order:  20%  correctly -­  interpretation:  the  ears  function  as  separate  channels  for  information  input -­  different  physical  locations  for  the  two  messages  are  initially  entered  and  preserves  in the  short  term  sensory  buffer  -­-­>  selective  attention  (filter)  operates  to  determine  which  channel is  recalled  first -­  performance  is  poorer  for  recall  in  presentation  order  because  more  attentional switching  is  required -­  as  attention  switching  between  locations  (ears)  happens,  the  information  in  buffer system  continues  to  decay  becoming  less  available Waugh  and  Norman’s  Model  of  Information-­  Processing (diagram  on  page  12) Stimulus  -­-­>  Primary  Memory  -­-­-­>  (rehearsal)-­-­>  Secondary  Memory \/  (Forgotten Introspection  :  looking  inward  to  observe  one’s  own  thoughts  and  feelings Primary  Memory/immediate  memory:    what  we  are  aware  of  in  the  immediately  present  moment;; often  termed  immediate  memory  or  short  term  memory -­  concept  derived  originally  from  William  James -­  major  insights  and  hypotheses  relied  on  introspection  (unlike  most  cognitive  psychologists) -­  rehearsal  refers  to  the  fact  that  primary  memories  tend  to  be  quickly  forgotten -­  unless  they  are  repeated -­  primary  memory  belongs  to  present,  as  secondary  belongs  to  past Secondary  Memory/  long  term  memory  :  knowledge  acquired  at  an  earlier  time  that  is  stored indefinitely,  and  is  absent  from  awareness’ -­  James  distinctions  between  primary  and  secondary  was  based  on  introspective  evidence -­  experimental  evidence:  Brown  Peterson  Task -­  set  of  items  to  remember  -­-­>  number  which  they  immediately  counted  backwards  by  threes, and  after  an  interval  were  asked  to  recall  the  items/words -­  because  interval  was  filled  with  an  exercise,  participant  is  prevented  from  rehearsing  the  letters and  unable  to  retain  them  to  his/her  primary  memory -­  unfilled  interval  would  allow  rehearsing  time  and  keep  it  in  the  primary  memory -­  recalling  letters  declined  as  number  of  interfering  items  increased -­  primary  memory  makes  it  possible  for  us  to  recall  and  accurately  recall  our  most  recent experiences -­  i.e.  recall  verbatim  the  most  recent  few  words  in  a  sentence  we  are  hearing/speaking (provided  no  distractions) “Consider  This”  Section: -­  describes  infants  perception  of  the  observed  world  as  :  one  great  blooming,  buzzing  confusion” -­  introduced  idea  of  the  stream  of  consciousness -­  pointed  out  importance  of  habitat  in  human  life -­  warned  against  psychologist  fallacy  (where  researchers  too  often  allow  personal  experiences and  views  intrude  their  rational  understanding  of  their  analysis  of  phenomena) Ecological  Validity Ecological  Approach:  a  form  of  psychological  inquiry  that  reflects  conditions  in  the  real  world Affordances:  the  potential  functions  or  uses  of  stimuli  (i.e.  objects  and  events)  in  the  real  world Information  Pick  Up:  The  process  whereby  we  perceive  informational  directly Schema:  an  expectation  concerning  what  we  are  likely  to  find  as  we  explore  the  world Perceptual  Cycle:  The  process  by  which  our  schemata  guide  our  exploration  of  the  world  and in  turn  are  shaped  by  what  we  find  there J.J  Gibson: -­  interest  in  the  richness  of  information  provided  by  the  environment -­  information  processing  psychologists  in  their  experiments  were  impoverished  (according  to him)  -­-­>  compared  to  info  given  by  real  world -­  ecological  approach  to  perception  -­-­>  environmental  stimulation  at  appropriate  levels -­  meaning  of  objects  and  events  can  be  perceived  through  affordances i.e.  food  afford  possibility  of  eating,  stairs  afford  possibility  of  climbing  etc. -­  knowledge  of  these  affordances  are  not  innate  ;;  they  are  learnt -­  thats  where  information  pick  up  exists  :  learning  becomes  attuned  by  what  the  environment affords  us Neisser:  (contrasting  view) OBJECT  (available  information)-­-­-­>(modifies)-­-­-­>  SCHEMA-­-­-­>  (directs)  -­-­-­> EXPLORATION -­  (**cyclical) -­  a  cyclical  model  of  cognition  in  which  a  perceives  possess  a  schema  -­-­>  represents  what he/she  expects  to  find  in  the  environment -­  encounters  unexpected  information  that  can  potentially  change  the  schema -­  i.e  balcony  example -­  Schema: -­  the  cognitive  model  of  the  environment  ,  constructed  over  time  through  interactions with  that  environment -­  provides  us  with  a  set  of  general  expectations  and  assumptions  regarding  what  we  are likely  to  find -­  example:  our  schema  for  buildings  has  been  modified  to  include  the  possibility  that  some balconies  will  be  built  at  angles  that  are  other  than  right -­  therefore,  perceptual  cycles  allows  us  to  become  increasingly  sophisticated  in  our  dealings with  that  environment -­  relative  views  of  lab  based  and  ecological  approaches  to  cognitive  research  are  highly  debated  with  no outline  to  resolve  dispute Cognitive  Ethology:  a  new  research  approach  that  links  real  world  observations  with  lab.  based  ones Metacognition  and  Cognitive  Psychology -­  metacognitive:  knowledge  about  knowledge  -­-­>  knowledge  about  how  the  cognitive  processes  work -­  study  of  cognitive  science  is  the  development  of  metacognition -­  we  begin  basic:  common  sense  understanding  of  cognition,  and  we  develop  this  further -­  means  changing  our  beliefs  and  accepting  uncertainty -­  Cog.  psych.  not  a  complete  body  of  knowledge  -­-­>  developing  area  of  inquiry -­  a  series  of  hypotheses  about  how  the  mind  works -­  get  over  the  feeling  that  thinking  about  thinking  is  an  impossible  abstract  skill  that  only  a  select  few  can master Summary -­  models  contrasted  each  other  (Broadbent,  Normans  and  Waughs  and  then  Gibson) -­  similarity  amongst  these  studies:  their  reliance  on  the  standard  lab  based  research  -­-­>  which assumes  the  same  mental  processes  can  be  isolated  and  tested  in  different  environments -­  alternative  is  cognitive  ethology:  acknowledges  that  cog.  processes  are  fluid,  adapting  to  the situation  and  goals  of  an  individual -­  study  of  cognitive  psychology  can  be  understood  as  a  matter  of  metacognition-­-­>  thinking about  thinking Cognition  in  Action  Section: -­  If  A  then  B  in  the  lab  does  not  mean  if  A  then  B  in  the  real  world Cognitive  Ethology: 1.  carefully  observe  and  describe  behaviour  as  it  naturally  occurs 2.  move  it  to  the  lab  and  gradually  simplify  relevant  factors 3.  test  to  find  out  whether  lab  findings  predict,  as  well  as  explain,  real  world  phenomena CHAPTER  1:  INTRODUCTION 1)  What  did  Hyman’s  early  experiments  demonstrate?  Response  times  slow  down  as  the  likelihood  of  a  stimulus  increases.  Response  times  speedup  as  the  likelihood  of  a  stimulus  decreases.  It  takes  more  time  to  respond  to  probable  stimuli  than  improbable  stimuli.  It  takes  more  time  to  respond  to  improbable  stimuli  than  probable  stimuli.   2)  Which  term  refers  to  our  assumptions  about  why  others  behave  or  think  the  way  they  do?  Folk  psychology  Cognitive  ethology  The  Brown–Peterson  task  Information  processing  theory 3)  You  have  been  recruited  to  participate  in  a  psychology  experiment.  The  experimenter  asks you  to  wear  headphones,  listen  to  a  series  of  numbers,  and  recall  them  in  any  order  you  like. You  hear  pairs  of  different  numbers  at  the  same  time,  one  in  each  ear.  For  example,  if  you  hear “17,”  you  would  hear  the  “1”  in  the  left  ear  and  the  “7”  in  the  right  ear.  After  hearing  the  series 17–82–64,  how  would  you  likely  recall  them?  186–724  178–264    172–864  462–871   4)  According  to  Strayer,  Drews,  and  Johnston,  which  of  the  following  statements  about  driving with  a  hand-­held  cell  phone  is  true?  It  is  more  dangerous  than  driving  with  a  hands-­free  cell  phone.  It  is  less  dangerous  than  driving  with  a  hands-­free  cell  phone.  It  is  equally  dangerous  as  driving  with  a  hands-­free  cell  phone.  Neither  are  dangerous  as  long  as  the  driver  isn’t  texting. 5)  Our  expectations  of  what  we  are  likely  to  find  as  we  explore  the  world  are  known  as affordances.  True    False   6)  Which  of  the  following  is  accurately  portrays  the  steps,  in  the  correct  order,  of  cognitive ethology?  Test  basic  mechanisms  first  in  the  laboratory  then  extend  to  real-­world  phenomena.  Collect  qualitative  data,  administer  surveys  regarding  naturally-­occurring  behaviour, and  test  survey  data  in  natural  setting.  Observe  and  describe  naturally-­occurring  behaviour,  move  it  into  the  laboratory  and gradually  simplify  it,  and  test  the  lab  findings  to  see  if  they  predict  and  explain real-­world  phenomena.  Derive  a  hypothesis  from  a  theory,  design  a  controlled  experiment,  and  use  inferential statistics  to  analyze  the  data. 7)  According  to  Broadbent’s  filter  model,  what  happens  to  the  information  that  arrives  at  our senses  and  is  not  selected?  Messages  remain  in  the  sensory  buffer  indefinitely.    Messages  are  held  until  they  can  be  used.  Messages  decay  with  the  passage  of  time.  Messages  are  categorized  and  processed. 8)  Findings  from  the  dichotic  listening  task  demonstrate  that  we  are  relatively  good  at  paying attention  to  two  messages  (one  at  each  ear).  True    False   9)  Who  argued  that  the  stimuli  used  by  information-­processing  psychologists  in  their experiments  were  often  impoverished  in  comparison  with  the  information  available  in  the  real world?  D.E.  Broadbent  J.J.  Gibson  Ulric  Neisser  Waugh  and  Norman 10)  Which  of  the  following  would  NOT  be  studied  in  human  experimental  psychology?  Memory  Language  Brain  damage  Attention 11)  Information  that  is  absent  from  awareness  is  considered  to  be  in  secondary  memory.  True    False   12)  Which  of  the  following  is  NOT  a  part  of  Neisser’s  perceptual  cycle?  Affordances  Object  Exploration  Schema 13)  According  to  information  theory,  in  what  way  is  information  provided  by  a  particular message  related  to  the  probability  of  its  occurrence?  Indirectly  related  Inversely  related  Positively  related  Not  related 14)  If  two  messages  are  presented,  you  are  more  likely  to  respond  more  quickly  to  the  one  that is  unexpected.  True    False   15)  The  second  stage  of  the  development  of  the  study  of  human  cognition  took  place  in  the mid-­1970s  and  was  fuelled  by  computational  analysis  and  marked  the  arrival  of  cognitive science. True  or  false? CHAPTER  3-­  PERCEPTION Case  Study:  Some  Unusual  Perceptual  Experiences -­  perpetual  deficits  as  a  result  of  damage  to  the  brain  was  presented  with  a  number  of  simple visual  objects  and  asked  to  identify  them,  responses  were  odd -­  did  identify  some  correctly,  but  others  were  identified  to  be  something  completely  different  i.e. lamp  for  a  lot  of  things Visual  impairment  of  objects:  Visual  Agnosia -­  objects  in  a  blind  area  of  a  person’s  visual  field:  and  are  still  able  to  guess  correctly  as  to  the orientation  and  placement  of  those  objects  suggests  something -­  ^  Weiskrantz-­-­>  informal  test  -­-­>  shown  a  stick  in  the  blind  area-­-­>  D.B.  was  able  to  point  to and  reach  for  objects  presented  in  his  blind  area  with  high  degree  of  accuracy -­  sticks  orientation  were  really  accurate  as  well -­  was  completely  unaware  though,  still  was  under  the  conception  that  he  could  not  see  anything therefore  he  could  not  have  been  right -­  dubbed  this  condition  as  Blindsight Blindsight:  a  condition  in  which  patients  with  damage  to  the  primary  visual  cortex  are  able  to  make accurate  judgments  about  objects  presented  to  their  blind  area  even  though  they  report  no  conscious experience  of  the  objects  and  believe  they  are  only  guessing Perception:  the  processing  of  sensory  information  is  such  a  way  that  it  produces  conscious  experiences and  guides  action  in  the  world Perception  and  Awareness Weiskrantz: -­  studies  of  blindsight-­-­>  we  may  be  able  to  perceive  visual  objects  without  our  conscious awareness William  James -­  people  are  not  actually  aware  of  a  lot  of  things  in  their  environment  as  they  could  potentially  be -­  lots  of  things  will  occur  which  appear  to  be  unconscious -­  i.e.  travellers  bringing  back  different  stories  of  each  country  they  travelled -­  people  encode  information  in  different  ways  (Encoding:  the  process  of  transforming information  into  one  or  more  forms  of  representation) -­  A  code:  set  of  rules  or  operations  that  transform  items,  objects,  or  data  from  one  systematic order  to  another -­  i.e.  hearer  of  a  sentence  will  code  sequence  of  psychical  ,  acoustic  events  into  a meaningful  form D.D.  Wickens -­  when  people  hear  the  word  horse -­  encoded  into  a  broad  category  of  beasts  of  burden,  four  legged  creatures,  mammals, warm  blooded  animals,  and  finally  animals  in  general -­  how?  -­-­>  largely  automatic  :  task  would  be  severely  complex  if  we  were  aware  of  it happening -­  in  fact  professional  athletes  do  worse  when  they  focus  on  what  they’re  doing -­  not  only  unconscious  but  very  fast -­  a  single  word  may  be  encoded  in  terms  of  multiple  dimensions -­  frequency  of  occurrence,  how  we  feel  about  it,  psychical  characteristics,  size  shape etc. -­  this  process  is  called  :  Multidimensional  Encoding Subliminal  Perception -­  is:  also  known  as  unconscious  perception:  occurs  when  an  observer  is  unaware  of  perceiving  a stimulus,  yet  the  stimulus  can  still  have  an  impact  on  his  or  her  behaviour -­  so,  stimulus  can  have  an  effect  on  behaviour  even  though  it  has  been  exposed  too  rapidly  or  at too  low  of  an  intensity -­  i.e.  word-­-­>  short  interval-­-­>  below  person’s  threshold  (  limen  -­-­>  therefore  a  word  below threshold  would  be  subliminal)-­-­>  has  an  effect  on  a  person (Wickens:) -­  participants  have  been  able  to  say  whether  or  not  a  word  is  pleasant  or  unpleasant with  very  short  intervals  ,  without  reporting  they’ve  seen  it -­  involves  semantics:  study  of  meaning -­  two  words  that  are  similar  are  semantically  related  i.e.  duck  and  swan  (water  birds) -­  some  early  experiments-­-­>  report  seeing  a  word  that  was  semantically  related  to  the  stimulus but  would  not  report  seeing  the  word -­  often  criticized  because -­  methodological  problems  :  how  do  we  know  it  was  not  actually  seen? -­  we  would  not  be  surprised  with  the  results  if  the  person  actually  saw  the  words -­  1970s,  early  1980s  -­-­>  started  coming  up  that  information  is  extensively  encoded  below  the threshold  of  awareness Backward  Masking -­  presenting  a  stimulus  called  the  target,  to  the  participant  and  then  covering,  or  masking  the target  with  another  stimulus -­  time  difference  between  the  stimulus  and  masking  stimulus  :  Stimulus  Onset  Asynchrony (SOA) -­  single  word-­-­>  masked  by  pattern -­  some  would  say  words  semantically  related  to  stimulus  word  i.e.  queen  instead  of king,  or  apple  instead  of  orange  (Known  as  priming) Priming:  the  tendency  for  some  initial  stimuli  to  make  subsequent  responses  to  related  stimuli  more likely Marcel: -­  other  studies  used  time  difference  between  1st  stimulus  and  masking  stim. -­  too  brief  to  detect  stimulus -­  word-­-­>  colour  patch -­  i..e  target  word  is  blue  colour  patch  is  the  colour  red -­  some  were  congruent  ie  red  word  and  patch,  and  some  incongruent -­  participants  (asked  to  name  colour  of  patch)  responded  quickly  to  the  congruent  in comparison  to  incongruent -­  suggestion:  that  target  stimulus  has  an  effect  on  colour  naming  latency  (response  time) even  when  participants  were  not  aware  of  it -­  thought  these  studies  lent  support  to  the  idea  that  when  an  indirect  measure  of  perceptual processes  is  used  i.e  associative  effects  of  the  undetected  word  on  subsequent  task,  all  participants show  effect  of  undetected  stimuli -­  to  determine  whether  or  not  stimulus  has  an  effect  on  cognitive  processes,  direct  measures may  not  be  necessary  i.e.  participants  verbal  reports  about  not  seeing  the  stimulus -­  indirect  measures  can  be  used  instead i.e.  masking  stimulus  so  it  is  not  reported  by  participants  does  not  mean  it  has  no  effect -­>  process  and  subsequent  behaviour  matters Direct  vs.  Indirect  Measures  :  participants  reports  that  they  have  seen  a  stimulus,  as  opposed  to  the effects  of  an  undetected  stimulus  on  a  subsequent  task Objective  and  Subjective  Thresholds Dissociation  paradigm:  an  experimental  strategy  designed  to  show  that  it  is  possible  to  perceive stimuli  in  the  absence  of  any  conscious  awareness  of  them Designed  to  show  a  Perception  without  awareness  phenomena-­-­>  a  stimulus  has  an  effect even  though  it  is  below  the  participants  subjective  threshold  of  awareness 1.  Measure  of  conscious  perpetual  experience  (C)  selected 2.  measure  that  is  sensitive  to  unconscious  perceptual  processes  is  identified  (U) 3.  experimental  procedures  are  initiated  to  ensure  that  C  exhibits  no  sensitivity  to  the  critical perpetual  information 4.  If  U  can  then  be  shown  to  exhibit  some  sensitivity  to  the  same  perceptual  information  that  C is  sensitive  to,  then  it  is  concluded  that  perception  without  awareness  is  demonstrated -­  still  does  not  eliminate  the  threshold  problem Objective  and  Subjective  Threshold:    the  point  at  which  participants  can  detect  a  stimulus  at  a  chance level  vs.  the  point  at  which  they  said  they  did  not  perceive  it Merikle -­  pointed  out  importance  of  differentiating  objective  and  subjective  thresholds -­  Objective:  the  level  at  which  people  detect  a  target  stimulus  no  more  often  than  what  would  be expected  by  chance  (no  better  than  the  results  of  a  blind  observer) -­  Subjective:  determined  by  degrading  the  stimulus  conditions  until  the  quality  of  the  stimulus information  if  so  poor  that  observers  claim  not  to  be  able  to  perceive  the  stimuli -­  i.e.  presented  quickly,  low  intensity,  that  participants  will  themselves  say  they  did  not see  it -­  backward  masking  experiments:  the  objective  threshold  refers  to  the  SOA  at  which  a  participant detects  the  target  stimulus  at  chance  level :  subjective:  participants  not  able  to  detect  stimulus -­  subjective  has  been  used  to  distinguish  between  conscious  and  unconscious -­  far  from  obvious  that  perception  without  awareness  has  occurred  when  participants  do  not believe  any  useful  stimulus  information  was  perceived -­  one  problem  is  provig  in  a  completely  convincing  fashion  that  no  useful  stimulus  was  perceived -­  to  rule  this  out  would  require  -­-­>  complete  assessment  of  the  participants  consciousness -­  rather  than  trying  to  make  sharp  distinctions  between  conscious  /  unconscious  it  is  better  to  investigate the  relative  contributions  of  each Debner  &  Jacoby Process  Dissociation  Procedure:  an  experimental  technique  that  requires  participants  not  to respond  with  items  they  have  previously  observed -­  if  participants  are  aware  of  a  previously  observed  item,  they  can  disclude  it -­  if  they  are  not  aware,  they  have  no  reason  to  disclude  it -­  items  masked  and  presented  for  short  or  long  durations -­  word  stem  appeared-­-­  e.g.  tab  which  would  be  able  to  be  paired  up  as  table,  taboo,  tabby -­  participants  were  easily  able  to  exclude  items  they  had  seen  at  long  duration i.e.  shown  table  for  long  duration  and  then  shown  tab-­-­>they  were  able  to  control  their response  on  the  stem  completion  task  by  picking  another  word  other  than  table -­  short  duration-­-­>  less  likely  to  exclude  it  as  a  solution -­  suggests:  they  did  not  perceive  the  word  when  it  was  shown  to  them -­  also  suggests:  behaviour  was  influenced  by  an  event  of  which  they  were  unaware -­  they  were  not  conscious  of  their  own  behaviour Controversies  surrounding  perception  without  awareness -­  implicit  perception  (Kihlstrom) -­  the  effect  on  a  person’s  experience,  thought  or  action  of  an  object  in  the  current stimulus  environment  in  the  absence  of,  or  independent  of,  conscious  perception  of  that  event -­  intended  to  link  conscious  perception  to  similar  phenomena  in  other  areas  of  cognition Conscious  and  Unconscious  Processes:  Summary  +  Conclusion -­  although  marcels  experiments  have  been  suspended;;  conclusions  are  valuable -­  importance  of  distinction  between  conscious  and  unconscious  mental  processes -­  conscious  percept  is  not  always  the  goal  of  perception i.e.  blindsight  patient  unable  to  perceive  an  object  presented  in  blind  area  consciously, but  could  accurately  point  at  it -­  suggests  that  one  key  aspect  of  [perception  is  that  it  allows  us  to  behave  and  act accordingly  to  our  environment Perception  as  A  Function  of  the  Environment Gibson: Theory  of  Ecological  Optics:  the  proposition  that  perception  is  based  on  direct  contact  of  the sensory  organs  with  stimulus  energy  emanating  from  the  environment  and  that  an  important  goal  of perception  is  action -­  Gibson:  nature  of  the  external  environ.  and  it’;;s  ability  to  guide -­  theory  of  eco.  optics:  idea  that  real  world  situations,  sensory  organs  -­-­>  stimulated-­-­>  energy from  envir.  -­-­>  containing  systematic  information  which  can-­-­>  guide  action -­  perception  is  the  function  of  stimulation-­-­>  stimulation  if  fcn  of  envir.  -­-­>  hence  perception  if function  of  envir. -­  all  processes  for  explaining  the  conversion  to  sensory  data  into  percepts  are  superfluous (unneeded) -­  no  process  of  conversion  is  assumed -­  believed  that  perception  is  accomplished  by  sensory  organs  themselves -­  without  extensive  internal  processing  of  info. -­  patterns  in  light  that  are  reflected  on  surfaces -­  ambient  optic  array  (AOA):  all  the  visual  information  that  is  present  at  a  particular  point  of view -­  when  we  look  at  the  world  at  any  given  position  -­-­>  visual  information  available -­  from  every  individual  viewing  point,  a  unique  pattern  of  light  enters  ees  -­-­>  reflected from  and  emitted  by  unique  combination  of  surfaces -­  work  was  devoted  to  examining  how  structures  of  the  world  are  manifested  in  the AOA  -­-­>  showing  these  manifestations  are  sufficient  to  perceive  those  structures -­  surfaces  are  composed  of  systematic  patterns i.e.  cobblestones Cobblestones:  rectangles  of  equal  size,  morph  into  progressively  smaller  parallelograms -­  if  you  look  at  elements  further  away  from  you  the  density  of  elements  increases -­  gradient  of  texture  density  :  incremental  changes  in  the  pattern  on  a  surface,  which  provide information  about  the  slant  of  the  surface -­  when  two  different  textures  intersect  -­-­>  create  discontinuity  in  pattern-­-­>  topological breakage-­-­>  used  to  give  information  about  the  edges  of  objects -­  compared  how  people  were  able  to  judge  the  slants  of  surfaces  or  irregular  and  regular textures irregular:  not  so  clearly  defined,  regular:  clear  and  repeating  elements -­  observers  given  photographs  of  surfaces  at  different  slants  and  asked  to  judge  the  angle  of each  slant -­  if  people  use  gradients  of  texture  density  to  judge  slant  of  surfaces  then 1.  should  be  able  to  judge  well  based  on  texture 2.  judgements  should  be  more  accurate  for  regular  -­-­>  provides  clearer  information  about  the gradient  of  texture  density  at  various  slants -­  participants  were  able  to  show  all  pretty  well-­-­>  were  highly  accurate  for  regular  than  irregular -­  surfaces  of  different  degrees  of  smoothness  reflect  light  in  different  ways  and  provides  useful information  about  the  smoothness  of  the  surface -­  scatter  reflection:  the  degree  to  which  light  scatters  when  reflected  from  a  surface -­  argued  that  most  of  classical  theories  and  experiments  concluded  a  fixed,  monocular perspective -­  i.e.  trapezoidal  frame  can  be  made  to  appear  rectangular -­  demonstrates  ambiguity  of  visual  information -­  if  motion  was  put  into  place,  the  illusion  vanishes  though -­  suggests:  the  entire  optical  array  undergoes  a  change  as  the  observer  moves -­  Transformation:    the  theory  proposed  by  gibson  -­-­>  the  change  of  optical  information  hitting the  eye  when  the  observer  moves  through  the  environment -­  focus  on  movement  led  to  the  concept  of  Optic  Flow  Field:  the  continually  changing transforming)  pattern  of  information  that  results  from  the  movement  of  either  objects  or  the  observer through  the  envir. -­  simplest  way  of  demonstrating  is  by  moving  dots -­  viewers  observing  this  can  accurately  identify  the  direction  of  motion  relative  to  a target  object  even  with  very  few  dots,  or  with  only  brief  presentation  times i.e  when  you  see  your  car  moving-­-­>  transformation  of  optic  array -­  bushes  in  background  are  blurry  and  trees  in  the  far  back  aren’t  -­-­>  suggests:  speed  of  object motion  can  be  used  as  a  guide  to  judge  the  relative  distance  between  object  and  observer -­  many  of  successful  theories  today-­-­>  hybrids  sitting  between  the  purely  internal  mechanisms  of classical  cognition  theory  and  envir.  -­driven  mechanisms  emphasized  by  Gibson Gibson  pulled  away  from  simplified  reductionist  stimuli  to  dynamic  meaning-­laden  envir.  of  the real  world-­-­>  relationships  between  environ.  perception  and  behaviour Pattern  Recognition  (PR) -­  the  ability  to  recognize  an  event  as  an  instance  of  a  particular  category  of  event Gibsons  theory  was  based  on  the  idea:  perception  if  a  function  of  stimulation  from  the  environ. -­  theories  of  PR  emphasize  characteristics  of  stimulus -­  differ  from  gibson-­-­>  in  two  ways 1.  do  not  consider  complex  array  of  light  (rather  focus  is  on  specific  objects  or  patterns) 2.  focus  on  how  it  is  that  we  build  internal  representation  of  objects  during  process  of identification  (whereas  Gibson  was  about  direct  perception  of  objects) -­  currently  machines  outperform  humans  in  the  highly  constrained  situations  i.e.  printed  labels  but humans  outgrow  them  via.  face  recognition  -­-­>  real  world  tasks -­  recognizing  a  configuration  involves  contact  between  emerging  percept  and  memory -­  Childhood-­-­  >  letter  A-­-­>  formed  a  percept  of  A  in  childhood-­-­>  then  a  memory  trace  (a trace  that  an  experience  leaves  behind  in  memory -­  to  recognize  A-­-­>  your  emerging  perception  of  A  must  make  contact  with  it’s  memory  trace -­  Hoffding  Function:  the  process  whereby  emerging  perception  makes  contact  with  memory trace Template  Matching Theory  (TMT):  the  hypothesis  that  the  process  of  pattern  recognition  relies  on  the  use  of  templates  or prototypes -­  -­  we  store  templates  in  memory  that  correspond  to  the  standard  forms  of  the  configuration  we see -­  process  would  involve  comparing  current  configuration  with  the  standard  or  prototypical (representative  of  a  pattern  or  category)  forms  that  we  have  in  memory TMT  (the  letter  a) -­  compare  each  a  with  the  prototypical  a  that  we  have  in  our  memory  then  if  the  match  is  good we  recognize  the  letter -­  TM  is  a  difficult  process  to  spell  out  in  detail -­  prototypical  pattern  must  differ  somewhat  from  the  particular  patterns  we  perceive  i..e  each  a differs  from  each  other Uhr  observed:  the  problem  is  to  specify  how  a  template  can  match  not  only  patterns  that  are identical  to  it,  but  also  similar  enough  to  it -­  criticism  to  the  theory  is  that  it  is  not  easy  to  spell  out  characteristics  that  a  pattern  must  have to  qualify  a  “similar  enough:  match  to  a  template -­  hypothesis  that  we  see  things  as  similar  to  each  other  because  they  resemble  an  underlying prototype  has  been  extensively  investigated Hintzman  -­  one  approach  to  prototypes -­  Multiple  Trace  Theory:  traces  of  each  individual  experience  are  recorded  in  memory,  No matter  how  often  a  particular  kind  of  event  si  experienced  a  memory  trace  of  the  individual  event  is recorded  each  time -­  so,  traces  of  each  individual  experience  is  recorded  in  memory -­  memory  trace  of  the  event  is  recorded  every  time  it  is  experienced -­  distinguished  between  primary  and  secondary  memory -­  secondary  memory  can  be  activated  via.  probe  (a  snapshot  of  information  in  primary  memory that  can  activate  memory  traces  in  secondary  memory) -­  probe  is  an  active  representation  of  an  experience  in  primary  mem. -­  when  probe  goes  out  of  primary  to  secondary,  memory  traces  are  activated  to  the  entente target  are  similar  to  the  probe -­  the  activated  memory  traces  are  said  to  return  an  “Echo”    to  the  primary  memory    (when  a probe  goes  out  from  Primary  to  secondary,  memory  traces  are  activated  to  the  extent  that  they  are similar  to  the  probe) -­  echo  is  made  up  of  contributions  from  all  the  activated  memory  traces -­  understanding  echo -­  i.e.  choir -­  hear  an  entire  chorus  of  voices  is  many  memory  traces  are  similar  to  the  current experience -­  in  a  chorus,  the  properties  of  individual  memory  traces  will  tend  to  be  lost  and  only  a general  impression  of  what  they  all  have  in  common  will  remain -­  he  used  his  theory  to  explain  the  results  of  classics  study  by  Posner -­  participants  shown  distortions  of  prototypical  patterns -­  were  formed  by  randomly  moving  dots  aware  from  their  positions  in  the  prototype -­  each  set  of  distortions  derived  from  given  prototype  -­-­>  called  concepts -­  parts.  were  shown  concepts  (not  prototypes) -­  required  to  classify  another  set  of  patterns  into  the  various  concepts -­  the  patterns  this  time  consisted  of  the  prototypes,  the  original  distortions  and  the  new distortions  of  the  proto. -­  the  prototypical  patterns  were  quite  well  classified,  even  though  they  have  never  been seen  before -­  another  posner  study:  pats.  sometimes  misidentified  the  prototype  as  a  pattern  they’d seen  before,  even  though  they’d  only  seen  distortions  of  it  before Hintzman  take  on  Posner's  theory/experiments -­  memory  traces  of  the  set  of  distorted  patterns  produced  an  echo  based  on  that  the different  distortions  had  in  common  rather  than  peculiarities  of  each  distortion -­  hence  proto.  is  recognized  without  previous  exposure -­  implication:  when  the  echo  has  been  experienced  in  the  primary  memory  it  can  leave  a memory  trace  of  itself  in  secondary  memory  -­-­>  relatively  abstract  experiences  can  later  be  directly remembered  as  echoes  of  echoes Feature  Detection Selfridge -­  another  approach  to  pattern  recognition:  Feature  detection  theory -­  detecting  patterns  on  the  basis  of  their  features  or  properties -­  simple  version  of  his  model  is  called  pandemonium -­  three  levels -­  bottom  level  :  image,  cluster  of  data -­  where  pattern  of  features  is  represented -­  may  include  size,  shape,  colour  etc. -­  next  level  is  cognitive  demons -­  examine  the  features  in  the  image -­  detect  particular  pattern  then  shouts  it -­  more  similar  the  pattern  in  image  to  the  one  it  is  looking  for  -­-­>  the  louder  it shouts -­  different  levels  of  intensity -­  sitting  above  hullabaloo  :  decision  demon -­  selects  the  cognitive  demon  shouting  loudest -­  this  choice  constitutes  the  pattern  being  recognized -­  basic  idea  of  his  theories:  objects  and  events  are  made  up  of  clusters  of  features,  and  we  use clusters  to  identify  them Pelli,  Farrell,  Moore -­  effect  of  contrast  between  letters  in  a  word  and  the  background  colour -­  contrast  energy:  relative  ease  with  which  a  stimulus  can  be  distinguished  from  the  background against  which  it  is  displayed  i.e.  grey  letter  on  grey  background  or  white  letters  on  black  background -­  study: English  words-­-­>  same  length-­-­>  2-­16  letters 26  words  -­-­>  same  length 200  milliseconds contrast  energy  was  varied contrast  energy  required  for  a  participant  to  identify  a  word  was  closely  related  to  the world’s  length:  the  more  letters  the  greater  the  contrast  energy  required -­  showed  that  letters  are  crucial  features  when  identifying  words/  process  of  word  recognition -­  the  longer  the  word,  the  more  letters  had  to  be  detected  within  a  unit  of  time  (and  time  was really  limited  here) -­  for  high  contrast-­energy  words=  the  signal  was  strong  enough  to  enable  detection -­  for  low  contrast-­energy  words  -­-­>  identifying  became  too  difficult -­  they  are  weak  signals  that  the  visual  system  will  tend  to  “squelch:  preventing  further processing Squelching:  reflection  of  the  visual  systems  preference  for  rigour  in  the  detection  of figured -­  the  tendency  of  the  nervous  system  to  inhibit  the  processing  of  unclear  features -­  rejection  to  guessing -­  blocks  the  intrusion  of  countless  false  features  that  would  besiege  us  if  weak features  were  not  suppressed Recognition  by  Components -­  consider  the  precise  size  of  the  finite  set  of  features -­  basic  features  for  letters  and  words Biederman -­  recognition  by  components  (RBC)  -­-­>  the  theory  that  we  recognize  objects  by  breaking  them down  into  their  fundamental  geometric  shapes -­  when  an  image  of  an  object  is  painted  in  the  retina,  RBC  assumes  that  a  representation of  the  image  is  segmented  (parsed)  into  separate  regions  at  points  of  deep  concavity,  especially  at  cuss where  there  are  discontinuities  in  curvature -­  parsing  breaks  down  the  objects  into  Geons Geons:  The  set  of  36  basic  #D  shaped  from  which  all  real  world  objects  can  be  constructed -­  object  recognition  should  be  a    function  of  the  number  of  geons  available  to  perceive -­  varied  the  complexity  of  the  objects  (in  a  study) -­  parts.  were  asked  to  name  the  object  as  quickly  and  accurately  as  possible -­  good  at  recognizing  the  objects  represented  by  2-­3  geons -­  improved  progressively  as  geons  increased -­  accuracy  led  to  more  detail -­  more  complex  items  were  recognized  quicker -­  strong  case  that  deconstructing  objects  into  geons  is  a  critical  component  of  object recognition Context  and  Knowledge context  in  which  the  object  appears-­-­>  important  aspect -­  knowing  someone  would  be  wearing  a  watch  or  bracelet  on  their  hand,  not  an  elephant  is  called  a priori  knowledge  -­-­>  allows  the  visual  system  to  sensitize  the  corresponding  visual  representations  of  a watch  and  a  bracelet  so  that  it  is  easier  to  recognize  surrounding  objects  when  we  tend  to  them -­  impact  that  context  and  knowledge  can  have  on  perception -­  Moon  Illusion -­  the  tendency  for  the  moon  to  appear  different  in  size  depending  on  where  it  is  in  the sky -­  taking  photos  of  the  moon  at  different  positions  in  the  sky-­-­>  will  still  be  the  same  size -­  photographers  usually  overlay  a  zoomed  shot  of  the  moon  onto  a  photo  of  a landscape  taken  with  wider  angle  lense -­  sky  s  a  perpetual  error  referred  to  as  the  moon  illusion -­  when  the  moon  is  near  the  horizon  we  can  compare  it  to  close  objects  to  judge  it’s size,  then  the  horizon  moon  is  compared  to  the  objects  on  the  earth  the  visual  system seems  to  assume  it  is  very  far  away -­  if  the  horizon  moon  is  farther  away  from  the  zenith  moon,  but  the  images  projected onto  your  eye  are  the  same  size,  the  horizon  moon  must  in  reality  be  substantially  bigger (visual  system  assumes) therefore:  Apparent-­Distance  Theory:  an  explanation  for  moon  illusion-­-­>  the  moon  on the  horizon  appears  larger  because  “Distance”  cues  lead  the  observer  to  perceive  it  as being  further  away  than  the  zenith  moon Letters  in  Context Jumbled  word  Affect:  ability  to  read  words  in  sentences  despite  having  mixed  up  letters  in  the middle  of  the  words -­  your  expectation  regarding  what  the  words  in  the  sentence  will  be  help  you  determine what  they  are Word  Superiority  Effect:  It’s  easier  to  identify  a  letter  ie.  P  if  it  appears  in  a  word  i.e.  WARP rather  than  it  appearing  alone -­  might  occur  because  after  years  of  fast  reading  we  are  able  to  map  strings  of tentatively  identified  letters  to  real  words Connectionist  Approach -­  Parallel  Distributed  Processing  (PDP) -­  a  model  of  perception  according  to  which  different  features  are  processed  at  the  same time  by  different  units  connected  together  in  a  network -­  based  on  the  assumption  -­-­>  information  processing=interactions  of  units-­-­>  sending excitatory  and  inhibitory  signals  to  other  units McClelland  and  Rumelhart  -­  Pattern  Recognition  Model -­  designed  to  explain  how  we  are  able  to  perceive  and  interpret  ambiguous  letter  strings -­  A  unit  is  activated  by  being  present  in  the  letter  being  perceived -­  i.e.  given  a  t -­  facilitates  the  hypothesis  that  the  word  is  trap,  but  inhibits  the  hypothesis  that the  word  is  able -­  the  hypothesis  that  the  word  is  trap  will  further  facilitate  the  perception  that  the second  letter  is  r,  and  inhibit  the  hypothesis  that  the  second  letter  is  b -­  excitatory  and  inhibitory  connections  between  units  is  what  determines  what  you  end up  seeing -­  all  the  connections  between  units  in  the  word  recognition  system  influence  one  another to  produce  a  stable  pattern Colours  in  Context Purves  and  Lotto -­  example  of  the  cubes -­  bathed  in  yellow  light  or  blue  light -­  two  at  the  bottom  have  been  covered  with  white  cubes  that  occlude  all  but  few  of  the  squares from  original -­  perception  of  colour  is  influenced  by  the  perpetual  context  in  which  an  object  appears -­  Empirical  Theory  of  Colour  Vision: -­  perception  of  colour  depends  on  our  prior  experience  with  how  objects  look  when  they're viewed  among  different  objects  and  under  various  lighting  conditions -­  implies  colour  perception  is  not  solely  the  result  of  light,  but  context  and  past  experience  are added  into  the  equation  to  create  the  final  percept Cross  Modal  Context Ventriloquism  :  we  expect  voices  to  come  from  moving  mouths  and  we  attribute  the  voice  to  the  wrong visual  course  therefore -­  context  is  visual  :  moving  mouths,  and  the  stimulus  affected  by  context  is  auditory:  voice  being heard  ;;  therefore  context  effect  is  cross-­modal McGurk  and  MacDonald -­  extent  to  which  auditory  information  can  be  affected  by  visual  processing -­  chances  are  you  and  or  naive  observer  may  hear  DA  instead  of  GA  or  BA -­  perception  of  sound  is  altered  by  visual  cues  made  by  mouth  movements  of  the  visible  person -­  closing  of  mouth  needed  to  initiate  “BA”  is  inconsistent  with  the  open  mouth  consisted  to  make the  sound  “GA”-­-­>  perpetual  sys.  creates  the  experience  of  something  in  between  -­-­>  a  syllable  that sounds  like  ba  but  can  be  created  with  an  open  mouth i.e.  the  McGurk  Effect (person  at  front  makes  mouth  movements  Ga  while  person  at  the  back  say  BA) Summary  -­  processes  involved  in  feature  detection  provide  data  for  perception -­  perception  is  influenced  by  our  expectations  for  what  we  are  likely  to  see  in  given  contexts -­  neither  data  or  context  alone -­  it  includes  reflecting  on  joint  impact  of  high  level  goals  and  recent  stimuli -­  Top  Down  Influences  -­-­>  High  Level  Goals-­-­>  influence  context  and  observed  knowledge, expectations  and  high  level  goals  on  perpetual  experience Bottom-­  Up  Influences  -­-­>  Recent  Stimuli  -­-­>  the  influence  of  the  stimulus  on  the  resulting  perpetual experience (pg.  72-­85-­  Read  and  Memorize-­-­-­>  no  notes) 1)  Which  of  Katz’s  basic  principles  of  organization  groups  together  visual  elements  that  are close  to  one  another?  Principle  of  proximity  Principle  of  closed  forms  Principle  of  good  contour    Principle  of  similarity 2)  What  type  of  perception  occurs  when  an  observer  is  unaware  of  perceiving  a  stimulus, despite  that  stimulus  having  an  effect  on  his  or  her  behaviour?  Subliminal  Supraliminal    Pre-­attentive  Heightened 3)  Which  theory  of  perception  involves  three  dimensional  geons  that  are  combined  to  form objects.  Recognition  by  components  (RBC)  Feature  integration  theory  (FIT)  Pandemonium  model  of  perception  Parallel  distributed  processing  model 4)  Information  presented  below  threshold  can  influence  our  behaviour.  True    False   5)  What  is  perception?  The  ability  to  store  that  information  in  memory  The  process  of  giving  that  information  meaning  The  process  of  changing  that  information  into  a  neural  impulse  The  ability  to  select  one  message  amongst  numerous 6)  The  underlying  reason  that  we  do  not  see  objects  in  our  blind  spot  is  because  this  is  the  part of  the  eye  that  does  not  contain  any  photoreceptors.  True    False   7)  What  does  the  fcat  taht  you  can  raed  tihs  snetecne  desrtomnate?  The  jumbled  word  effect  That  context  influences  perception  That  top-­down  processing  influences  perception  All  of  the  above 8)  We  accurately  perceive  our  environments,  making  it  very  difficult  for  large  changes  to  go unnoticed.  True    False   9)  Subjective-­distance  theory  can  account  for  why  the  moon  seems  bigger  when  it  is  closer  to the  horizon  and  smaller  when  it  is  high  in  the  sky.  True    False   10)  Why  is  Purves  and  Lotto’s  empirical  theory  of  colour  vision  important?  It  shows  that  colours  are  only  perceived  based  on  the  wavelengths  of  their  light.  It  shows  that  prior  experience  and  context  can  influence  how  we  perceive  colours.  It  shows  that  recognition  by  components  theory  accounts  for  colour  perception.  It  shows  that  top-­down  processing  is  incapable  of  modifying  objective  perceptions. 11)  Imagine  you  are  watching  an  online  newscast,  and  you  felt  like  you  perceived  the  word “date,”  but  the  newscaster  was  talking  about  something  to  do  with  bait  and  gates.  What  did  you experience?  An  echo    The  transient  speech  effect  The  word  superiority  effect  McGurk  effect 12)  Feature  binding  is  a  process  that  works  in  a  parallel  manner  and  enables  the  features  of objects  to  be  unified  for  object  perception.  True    False   13)  John  was  unable  to  identify  the  fork  that  was  at  the  table  in  front  of  him,  but  after  it  was placed  directly  in  his  hand  he  knew  instantly  that  it  was  indeed  a  fork.  John  likely  has  which condition?  Alzheimer’s  disease  Broca’s  aphasia  Visual  agnosia  Blindsight 14)  According  to  Gibson’s  theory  of  ecological  optics,  when  looking  at  your  environment  there are  a  number  of  affordances  that  help  guide  perception.  Which  of  the  following  is  NOT  one  of those  affordances?  Gradient  of  texture  density  Topological  breakage  Principle  of  simplicity  Scatter-­reflection 15)  Which  of  the  following  designs  is  intended  to  show  that  perception  without  awareness  is  a real  phenomenon?  Höffding  function  Theory  of  ecological  optics  Empirical  theory  of  colour  vision  Dissociation  paradigm CHAPTER  5  -­  MEMORY  TRACES  AND  MEMORY  SCHEMAS (pg.  128,  130-­142,  151-­160) Case  Study:  Picking  Cotton Jennifer  Thompson  woke  with  a  man  and  knife  in  her  bed -­  convinced  him  to  let  her  get  a  beer;;  escaped  with  her  eyeing  his  face  for  details -­  picked  the  wrong  guy  -­  Ronald  Cotton  -­-­>  who  was  innocent,  but  looked  like  the  rapist -­  he  was  sentenced  to  10  years  of  jail  before  it  was  tested  by  DNA  that  Bobby  Poole  was  the actual  rapist -­  memory  is  not  like  a  video  camera;;  rather  it  seems  that  we  capture  the  gist  of  incoming messages,  assimilate  that  information  with  schemas  that  are  already  stored  in  our  long  term  memory  and then  use  those  schemas  to  fill  in  the  blanks  when  we  are  missing  important  bits  of  information Schema  based  Theories  of  Memory Mystic  writing  pad  model;;  toy  writing  tablet-­-­>  retains  fragments  of  old  messaged  even  after they  have  been  erased,  they  accumulate  and  begin  to  overlap-­-­>  become  increasingly  hard  to  read -­  analogy  helps  us  realize  difference  between  memory  schema  and  traces -­  memory  traces-­-­>  like  a  video  recorded:  preserved  indefinitely  and  replayed  over  and  over -­  if  memory  was  entirely  a  matter  of  recalling  memory  traces,  then  remembering  would  be  like re-­experiencing  the  past -­  that  notion  is  what  Neisser  called:  Reappearance  hypothesis:  that  same  memory  can disappear  and  appear  over  and  over  again -­  contrast:  if  we  do  not  have  stored  copies  of  finished  mental  events  the  memory  must  be  a schematic,  relying  on  fragments,  to  support  new  construction The  Trace  Theory Flashbulb  memories:  vivid  detailed  memories  of  significant  events Now  Print!  Theory:  theory  that  especially  significant  experiences  are  immediately  photocopied and  preserved  in  long  term  memory Brown  and  Kulik Experiment:  John  Kennedy's  -­1963  assassination -­  80  Harvard  undergraduates 1.  where  they  were  and  when  they  learned  of  it 2.  what  they  were  doing  at  the  moment 3.  the  person  that  told  them 4.  their  affect  (how  they  felt  at  the  time) 5.  the  aftermath  ;;  what  they  did  immediately  after  hearing  the  news -­  vivid  detailed  accounts;;  flashbulb  memories -­  took  now  print  theory  (Livingston)  to  explain  how  such  memories  are  produced 5  stages  to  their  sequence 1.  Stimulus  is  tested  for  surprisingness -­  if  it  is  completely  ordinary-­-­>  pay  no  attention  to  it  at  all  (inattention) -­  if  it  is  sufficiently  traumatic-­-­>  retrograde  amnesia-­-­>  not  process  at  all -­  extraordinary-­-­>  pay  very  close  attention  to  it 2.  Consequentiality -­  fail-­-­>  forgotten -­  those  important  and  surprising:  move  onto  third 3.  Where  flashbulb  memories  are  formed -­  will  vary  in  vividness  depending  on  the  degree  of  surprise  and  consequentialism 4.  Rehearsal -­  think  about  those  memories  and  develop  verbal  accounts  for  them 5.  Tell  and  Retell  the  accounts  to  others Now  Print!  Theory-­-­>  focuses  on  third  stage -­  surprising  and  consequential  experience  is  preserved  in  long  term  memory -­  production  of  a  photocopy -­faithful  representation  of  everything  on  the  page-­-­>  highly  detailed  memory  traces Investigating  the  Flashbulb  Hypothesis  Brown  and  K -­  attracted  attention -­  #  of  historically  important  events  were  analyzed -­  Challenger  space  shuttle  explosion -­  three  days  after  event-­-­>  collected  questionnaires  -­-­>  45  people-­-­>  9  months  later  27 completed  follow  up  questionnaire,  as  did  31  new  people  who  had  not  seen  first  questionnaire Questionnaire: 1.  Where  were  you  when  you  first  learned  of  the  explosion? 2.  What  were  you  doing? 3.  Did  you  see  the  event  as  it  was  actually  happening  or  did  you  learn  about  it? 4.  What  were  your  first  thoughts  on  hearing  the  news? -­  all  participants  remembered  something -­  immediate  and  9  month  -­-­>  comparison-­-­>  information  had  been  lost  over  the  interval  (quite  a  bit)  -­-­> details  were  not  consistent  either -­  7  of  9  month  accounts  were  more  detailed  than  specific  accounts  -­-­>  20  more  general -­  7  of  9  months  were  inconsistent  with  the  original  reports  on  matters  such  as  where  they  were when  they  heard  the  news -­  none  of  9  months  were  widely  inconsistent  with  earlier  versions -­  inaccuracies  can  be  introduced-­-­>  when  information  that  cannot  be  retrieved  is  filled  with inferences  and/or  guesswork McCloskey -­  concluded  that  so  called  flashbulb  memories  are  not  more  accurate  than  normal  memories -­  no  need  for  special  flashbulb  mechanisms  to  account  for  them -­  if  they  seem  to  recall  more  vividly,  it  because  we’ve  replayed  them  several  times -­  #  of  studies  after  September  11th -­  Talarico  &  Rubin -­  tested  54  duke  students  -­-­>  using  open  ended  questionnaire  similar  to  brown  and  K -­  not  only  momentaneous  events  of  the  previous  day  but  also  of  an  ordinary  event  such  a  sa party  that  each  participant  recently  experiences -­  added  other  tests  to  measure  additional  aspects  of  phenomena -­  i.e.  intensity  of  emotional  felt  when  tests  were  done  and  events  were  recalled -­  divided  into  three  groups  of  18  and  retested  once -­  1st  group-­  1  week  later,  2nd-­  6,  3rd-­  32  weeks -­  object  was  to  measure  consistency  of  each  report  in  each  time  interval -­  flashbulb  memories  and  everyday  memories  show  a  decline  in  consistency  and  increase  in inconsistency -­  flashbulb  memories  had  more  emotion  associated  with  them,  but  were  no  more  accurate  than ordinary  memories -­  participants  thought  otherwise -­  They  concluded  that  flashbulb  mems  enhance  memory  characteristics  such  as  vividness  and confidence  but  people  should  not  put  a  lot  of  faith  in  them Are  Memory  Traces  Permanent? -­  flashbulb  memory  experiments  -­-­>  led  to  the  thought  that  memory  traces  persist  unchanged  over  time -­  classic  Consolidation  Theory:  memory  traces  of  events  are  not  fully  formed  after  the  event,  rather  take time  to  consolidate -­  process  can  be  disrupted  by  several  things  one  of  which  is  retroactive  interference  (RI) -­  RI-­-­>  a  decline  in  the  recall  of  one  event  as  a  result  of  a  later  event Woodworth:  rest  immediately  after  learning -­  allows  for  full  consolidation  while  strenuous  mental  work  just  at  this  time  leaves  traces weak Wixted:  even  if  intervening  material  is  not  related  to  original  learning  in  anyway,  the  new  learning still  draws  on  limited  pool  of  resources  that  may  have  been  able  to  consolidate  original  learning -­  therefore  memory  from  original  learning  suffers Hippocampus:  crucial  site  for  the  consolidation  of  memory  traces -­  converts  immediate  and  long  term  memories -­  recent  memories  undergoing  consolidation  process  will  be  impaired  if  the  hipp.  formation  is damaged -­  likely  that  retroactive  interference  occurs  because  ordinary  exertion  and  memory  formation detract  from  an  ongoing  process  of  hippocampal  consolidation -­  long  believed  that  once  the  consolidation  process  was  done  the  memory  was  fixed  and permanent -­  but  when  the  stored  trace  is  re  activated,  it  becomes  changeable -­  therefore  recalling  a  previous  experience  places  it  in  working  memory  where  contacts  other experiences -­  i.e.  context  may  be  different  from  the  place  you  were  when  you  memorized  from  where  you are  when  you’re  recalling =  provides  opp.  to  revise  the  memory  trace  (extent  of  revision  is  controversial)  -­-­> revised  trace  would  undergo  reconsolidation  in  hipp. -­  no  reason  to  believe  that  memory  trace  is  necessarily  a  faithful  rendition  of  the  original experience Nader -­there  can  be  no  doubt  that  memories  are  fundamentally  dynamic  processes,  at  first  explicitly demonstrated  by  Barlett -­  are  not  snapshots  of  events -­  are  constructive  in  nature  and  always  changing Bartlett  and  the  Concept  of  the  Schema Method  of  repe
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