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Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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Western University
Psychology 2010A/B
Terry Biggs

Psych 2010A Chapter 2 - Pattern Recognition • pattern recognition: the study of how people identify the objects in their environment • tachistoscope: a device for presenting patterns very rapidly under controlled conditions • a box that presents visual stimuli at a specified duration and level of illumination Describing Patterns • our LTM contains many descriptions of patterns • templates: holistic, or unanalyzed entities that we compare with other patterns • to measure the degree of similarity of two things • limitations of using templates: • the comparison requires that the template be the same size, same orientation, and same position as the pattern we are trying to identify • there is a great variability of patterns • a template doesnʼt reveal how patterns differ • does not provide alternative descriptions for patterns • feature theory: allows us to contrast the patterns into their parts • research was done on proving the feature theory and part of the evidence comes from recording the action potentials of individual cells in the visual cortex • following criteria as a basis for selecting a set of features of upper case letters: • the features should be critical ones that provide a contrast • the identity of features should remain unchanged under changes in brightness, size, and perspective • the features should yield a unique pattern for each other • the number of proposed features should be reasonably small • interstimulus interval: the time separating two patterns • accuracy declines as the interstimulus interval was greater • sensory store lasts approximately one-quarter of a second • perceptual confusions: a measure of frequency with which two patterns are mistakenly identified as each other • distinctive features: a feature present in one pattern but absent in other, aiding oneʼs discrimination of the two patterns. • emphasizing distinctive features can help children learn the difference between letters, numbers, etc • feature theories can also be used to describe peopleʼs faces • complex features such as ears, nose, and mouth are helpful in identifying objects • structural theory: a theory that specifies how the features of a pattern are joined to other features of the pattern (how the features are joined together) • Birdermanʼs Component Model: proposed that we only need 35 simple volumes called geons to describe objects in the world • one consequence is that deleting information about the relations of features decreases our accuracy of recognizing patterns • structural theories extend the feature theory in specifying how the features are related Information-Processing Stages • The Partial-Report Technique • Sperling showed a number of letters in a screen and asked the subjects to identify what the letters were after showing them • as there were more letters, the accuracy decreased • Sperling thought that part of the reason why they couldnʼt recognize all letters was maybe because they had forgotten • changed his experiment from a whole-report procedure (report all the letters) to a partial-report procedure (report only some of the letters) • use of the
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