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Chapter 2

Psychology 2010A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Interstimulus Interval, Tachistoscope, Visual Cortex

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Terry Biggs

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Psych 2010A
Chapter 2 - Pattern Recognition
pattern recognition: the study of how people identify the objects in their environment
tachistoscope: a device for presenting patterns very rapidly under controlled
a box that presents visual stimuli at a specified duration and level of illumination
Describing Patterns
our LTM contains many descriptions of patterns
templates: holistic, or unanalyzed entities that we compare with other patterns
to measure the degree of similarity of two things
limitations of using templates:
the comparison requires that the template be the same size, same orientation,
and same position as the pattern we are trying to identify
there is a great variability of patterns
a template doesnʼt reveal how patterns differ
does not provide alternative descriptions for patterns
feature theory: allows us to contrast the patterns into their parts
research was done on proving the feature theory and part of the evidence comes
from recording the action potentials of individual cells in the visual cortex
following criteria as a basis for selecting a set of features of upper case letters:
the features should be critical ones that provide a contrast
the identity of features should remain unchanged under changes in brightness,
size, and perspective
the features should yield a unique pattern for each other
the number of proposed features should be reasonably small
interstimulus interval: the time separating two patterns
accuracy declines as the interstimulus interval was greater
sensory store lasts approximately one-quarter of a second
perceptual confusions: a measure of frequency with which two patterns are mistakenly
identified as each other
distinctive features: a feature present in one pattern but absent in other, aiding oneʼs
discrimination of the two patterns.
emphasizing distinctive features can help children learn the difference between
letters, numbers, etc
feature theories can also be used to describe peopleʼs faces
complex features such as ears, nose, and mouth are helpful in identifying objects
structural theory: a theory that specifies how the features of a pattern are joined to
other features of the pattern (how the features are joined together)
Birdermanʼs Component Model: proposed that we only need 35 simple volumes
called geons to describe objects in the world
one consequence is that deleting information about the relations of features
decreases our accuracy of recognizing patterns
structural theories extend the feature theory in specifying how the features are
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