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Chapter 5

Psychology 2010A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Mnemonic, Psych, Metacognition

Course Code
Terry Biggs

of 2
Andrea Loa
Psych 2010A
Chapter 5 - Long-Term Memory
LTM - memory that has no capacity limits and last from minutes to an entire lifetime
no limits with capacity nor duration
The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model
Transferring Information from STM to LTM
control processes: strategies that a person uses to facilitate the acquisition of
knowledge (includes rehearsal, coding, and imaging)
rehearsal - repetition of information
coding - attempts to place the info to be remembered in the context of
additional, easily retrievable information, such as a mnemonic phrase or
imaging - involves creating visual images to remember verbal info
Verbal Information and Learning
rote learning - learning by repetition rather than through understanding
the predicted probability of a correct response therefore depended on both the
number of trials in which the item was rehearsed and the number of intervening
trials that occurred between the time the item left the rehearsal set and the test trial
Rehearsal and the Serial Position Effect
an easy way to test the proposal that verbal rehearsal results in learning is ask
someone to rehearse out loud
serial position effect: the ability to recall words at the beginning and the end of a list
better than words in the middle of the list
primacy effect: better recall of words in the beginning of the list
this is because the information has been stored in the LTM
this effect would be eliminated if the all items are rehearsed equally
recency effect: better recall of words in the end of the list
this is because the information is still in the STM
this effect would be eliminated if the person has to perform another task before
recalling the items
amnesia - people with this disorder have trouble recalling items from the LTM, but
have a normal working STM
refers to the selection of strategies for processing information such as the selection of
study strategies to prepare for exams.
study strategies include such activities as determining the expectations of the
teaching, managing time, interacting with the teacher and fellow students, selecting
learning strategies, setting goals, and monitoring progress
acquisition of knowledge - getting information into the LTM
retrieval strategies involve getting information out of the LTM by searching for the
acquiring good acquisition depends on our ability to judge how well we have
learned the material