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Chapter 6

Chapter 6

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Psychology 2010A/B
Terry Biggs

Andrea Loa Psych 2010A Chapter 6 - Memory Codes • memory code: a representation used to store an item in memory • format of information encoded into memory • different types: physical, phonemic, and semantic • auditory memory span: number of items recalled from STM following an auditory presentation of items • a patient with an impaired auditory memory span will not be able to recall any of these items •this same patient with the impairment to the auditory memory span, was able to recall items from the STM if presented in a different way (i.e. visual way) • a word-nonword association was harder to recall than a word-word association • in the word-word association, individuals used semantic coding (meaning of the words) to help them maintain it in the STM • judgement task/ orienting task: instructions to focus on a particular aspect of a stimulus • try to control the memory code formed by the individual by making the individual make a decision about a particular aspect of the word, such as its pronunciation or its meaning • levels of processing: a theory that proposes that ʻdeeperʼ (semantic) levels of processing enhance memory • more elaborate levels of processing leads to better memory • more distinctive codes also lead to better memory The Levels of Processing Theory • Emphasis on Coding Strategies • 3 objectives: •examine the reasons for proposing multistore models •to question the adequacy of such models •and to propose an alternative framework in terms of levels of processing • the sensory store: provides a literal copy of the stimulus, but rapidly decays •this information can be prevented from decaying by attendance to it or verbal rehearsal • retrieval is easy in the STM because only a few items have to be searched • LTM is largely semantic, organized according to meaning • capacity of the STM is longer than 5-9 items, it is evident that one can remember up to 20 words in a sentence (maybe because it is put in chunks?) • STM is mainly comprised of phonemic codes and LTM is mainly comprised of semantic codes. • theory doesnʼt explain the variety of decay rates - each memory code has its own decay rate • preliminary processing: concerned with the analysis of physical features such as lines, angles, brightness, pitch, and loudness • Implications for Verbal Rehearsal • does not automatically result in learning, depends on the level in which the material is processed. • maintenance rehearsal - rehearsal that keeps information active in STM •the probability of recalling a word at the end of the experiment should be a function of the length of time it was maintained in the STM •rehearsal does NOT automatically cause learning Supporting Evidence of the Levels-of-Processing Theory • The Hyde-Jenkins Experiment • used an incidental learning task: a task that requires people to make judgements about stimuli without knowing that they will be tested later on. • 3 groups: one group was to rate whether the word was pleasant or unpleasant, the second group was to rate whether the word had the letter ʻeʼ in it, and the third group had to estimate the number of letters in each word. •used three different orienting tasks to create different levels of processing •semantic processing should result in better recall of words, so the group who rated the pleasantness of the word will have better recall than the group who judged the spelling of the words •incidental learning is just as effective as intentional learning when student considered the meaning of the words • clustering: percentage of occassions in which a word is followed by its primary associate during the free recall of words. • Structural, Phonemic, and Semantic Processing • structural coding: a memory code hat emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus • phonemic coding: a memory code that emphasizes the pronunciation of the stimulus • semantic coding: a memory code based on the meaning of the s
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