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Chapter 7

Psychology 2010A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Coding Theory, Word Association, Abstract And Concrete


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2010A/B
Professor
Terry Biggs
Chapter
7

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Psych 2010A
Chapter 7 - Visual Images
verbal knowledge: knowledge expressed in language
usually measured with vocabulary questions or questions that test comprehension
of written material
spatial knowledge: usually measured by performance of such operations as mentally
folding connected squares into a cube or mentally rotating an object to determine
whether it matches another object
storage of spatial knowledge is usually in the form of images.
visual imagery is very difficult to study because it cannot be directly observed, but
research over the past two decades has provided strong evidence that visual images
are used in performing many tasks.
Visual Imagery and Learning
the use of visual imagery is a form of elaboration
Memory for Pictures
people usually find it easier to recognize pictures than to recognize words - a
suggestion why visual coding might just be as important as semantic coding
tests were done, where one test showed pictures and one test presented words -
when the same test was repeated using words instead of pictures, recognition
accuracy wasnʼt as high
participants not necessarily remember all the details of a picture -- but they did
remember enough details to distinguish that picture from a novel picture
Paivioʼs Dual Coding Theory
since we are good at remembering pictures, we could improve our memory if we
form mental pictures (images)
people who considered the meaning of the words recalled primary associates
together, because recalling one word reminded them of its associate.
easier to form an image of a concrete object (i.e. juggler), rather than an abstract
object (i.e. truth)
concrete-abstract dimension: important indicator of how easily an image can be
formed
imagery potential: ease with which a concept can be imaged - usually measured
by asking people to rate on a scale how easy it is to form an image for a given
word
association value: the number of verbal associations generated for a concept -
measured by asking people to give as many associations over a 1-minute interval.
high imagery words are easier to learn than low imagery words, but high
association words are not necessarily easier to learn than low association words
when images can be created for both members of a word pair, the images can be
combined to form an interactive image
high imagery words were easier to recall than low imagery words even though
learners were told not to use visual imagery
an image is provided as a secondary code to the verbal code
dual-coding theory: a theory that memory is improved when items can be
represented by both verbal and visual memory codes
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provides a better chance in recall
criticism: only works in situations where people focus on relational
information - information specifying how concepts are related - such as the
associations between items in a paired-associates task.
a group was told to ignore the fact the words were presented in pairs
and to rate the words individually on the ease with which each evoked a
mental image. - group did not recall any more concrete words than
abstract words
Comparison of Association-Learning Strategies
mnemonic (memory) technique: a strategy that improves memory
Bower and Winzenz had people learn paired associates consisting of concrete
nouns.
some students were in the repetition condition and some of them are in the
sentence-reading condition
all four studies resulted to a high level of performance
verbal rehearsal is less effective than elaboration strategies (i.e. visual
rehearsal) - visual elaboration more effective than semantic elaboration
bizarre images (a fantastic or unusual image) are not always more effective than
plausible images.
The Mnemonic Keyword Method and Vocabulary Learning
the use of imagery to remember names obviously depends on how easy it is to
form an image from a name
the associated word, called the keyword, should sound like the name that is being
learned
forming a keyword is more complicated than just forming the image because on
top of forming the image, you also have to remember the association between the
two words to remember the original word correctly.
keyword method requires two stages:
forming the association between the two words
forming the mental image
a good keyword includes:
sounds as much as possible like the other word
be different from the other keywords
easily form an interactive image with the English translation
Evidence for Images in Performing Cognitive Tasks
Pylyshyn argued that it was misleading to think of images as uninterpreted photograph
5 cases of evidence for images in performing cognitive tasks
Scanning Visual Images
many explanations of performance based on visual imagery assume that an image
is a spatial representation analogous to the experience of seeing an object during
visual perception
visual scanning: a shift of attention across a visual image
the time it takes to scan two pictures should be a function of their distance from
each other.
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