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Chapter 7

Chapter 7

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Psychology 2010A/B
Terry Biggs

Psych 2010A Chapter 7 - Visual Images • verbal knowledge: knowledge expressed in language • usually measured with vocabulary questions or questions that test comprehension of written material • spatial knowledge: usually measured by performance of such operations as mentally folding connected squares into a cube or mentally rotating an object to determine whether it matches another object • storage of spatial knowledge is usually in the form of images. • visual imagery is very difficult to study because it cannot be directly observed, but research over the past two decades has provided strong evidence that visual images are used in performing many tasks. Visual Imagery and Learning • the use of visual imagery is a form of elaboration • Memory for Pictures • people usually find it easier to recognize pictures than to recognize words - a suggestion why visual coding might just be as important as semantic coding • tests were done, where one test showed pictures and one test presented words - when the same test was repeated using words instead of pictures, recognition accuracy wasnʼt as high • participants not necessarily remember all the details of a picture -- but they did remember enough details to distinguish that picture from a novel picture • Paivioʼs Dual Coding Theory • since we are good at remembering pictures, we could improve our memory if we form mental pictures (images) • people who considered the meaning of the words recalled primary associates together, because recalling one word reminded them of its associate. • easier to form an image of a concrete object (i.e. juggler), rather than an abstract object (i.e. truth) • concrete-abstract dimension: important indicator of how easily an image can be formed • imagery potential: ease with which a concept can be imaged - usually measured by asking people to rate on a scale how easy it is to form an image for a given word • association value: the number of verbal associations generated for a concept - measured by asking people to give as many associations over a 1-minute interval. • high imagery words are easier to learn than low imagery words, but high association words are not necessarily easier to learn than low association words • when images can be created for both members of a word pair, the images can be combined to form an interactive image • high imagery words were easier to recall than low imagery words even though learners were told not to use visual imagery • an image is provided as a secondary code to the verbal code • dual-coding theory: a theory that memory is improved when items can be represented by both verbal and visual memory codes • provides a better chance in recall • criticism: only works in situations where people focus on relational information - information specifying how concepts are related - such as the associations between items in a paired-associates task. • a group was told to ignore the fact the words were presented in pairs and to rate the words individually on the ease with which each evoked a mental image. - group did not recall any more concrete words than abstract words • Comparison of Association-Learning Strategies • mnemonic (memory) technique: a strategy that improves memory • Bower and Winzenz had people learn paired associates consisting of concrete nouns. •some students were in the repetition condition and some of them are in the sentence-reading condition •all four studies resulted to a high level of performance •verbal rehearsal is less effective than elaboration strategies (i.e. visual rehearsal) - visual elaboration more effective than semantic elaboration • bizarre images (a fantastic or unusual image) are not always more effective than plausible images. • The Mnemonic Keyword Method and Vocabulary Learning • the use of imagery to remember names obviously depends on how easy it is to form an image from a name • the associated word, called the keyword, should sound like the name that is being learned • forming a keyword is more complicated than just forming the image because on top of forming the image, you also have to remember the association between the two words to remember the original word correctly. • keyword method requires two stages: •forming the association between the two words •forming the mental image • a good keyword includes: •sounds as much as possible like the other word •be different from the other keywords •easily form an interactive image with the English translation Evidence for Images in Performing Cognitive Tasks • Pylyshyn argued that it was misleading to think of images as uninterpreted photograph • 5 cases of evidence for images in performing cognitive tasks • Scanning Visual Images • many explanations of performance based on visual imagery assume that an image is a spatial representation analogous to the experience of seeing an object during visual perception • visual scanning: a shift of attention across a visual image •the time it takes to scan two pictures should be a function of their distance from each other. •if distance determines the scanning time, reactions time should be a linear function of the distance between two locations •we can mentally scan visual images in the same way that we can scan pictures • criticism: people may not be able to predict how the shape of patterns will influence their scanning time •the rate at which people scanned a visual image of the pattern depended on its shape. • very highly unlikely that people could perform many spatial tasks without using imagery • Sequential vs. Parallel Processing • parallel processing: representation of knowledge in which more than one item at a time can be processed • sequential processing: representation of knowledge in which only one time at a time can be processed • visual imagery can go through parallel processing, but verbal information has to go through sequential processing •i.e. comparing all the features of a personʼs face - visual imagery is much faster because we can all compare the fea
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