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Western University
Psychology 2020A/B
Riley Hinson

TOBACCO History - First users : Mayans (300AD) - When Europeans landed in the new world they saw native peoples roll leaves and insert them into their nostrils - They conveyed tobacco back to Europe in 1500, and popularity began to grow - Initial reactions: general enthusiasm and attribution of wide ranging medical powers Administration - Via pipe in 1600 - Smokers often gathered in tobacco houses similar to opium (taking snuff) - 1800, chewing tobacco increased in popularity - 1800, rolled tobacco became popular in US (cigarette machine: James Bonsack) Protestations - King James I: “Counterblast to tobacco” no real medical benefits - Pope Urban VIII: ban against Catholics smokers (to close to sexual ecstasy) - Sultan Murad IV: prohibited smoking in the Ottoman Empire (beheaded smokers) - Ibrahim the mad lifted the ban - Czar Michael of Russia banned smoking: o First time offenders: torture o Second time offesters: execution - 1895: North Dakota, 1 state to ban the sale of cigarettes, 14 others states followed - Anti-cigarette league: Lucy GASTON, cigarette = coffin nails - Adolf Hitler: aggressive antismoking campaing - But, all have failed the test of the time: government need the tax revenue Cigarette consumption - 1900-1964: increase versus 1970-2005: decrease - 1950: 70% of the adult in Canada smoked - 15years old: 1965 => 50% / 1975: 45% / 1985: 35% / 1995: 25% / 2005: 20% / 2008:18% - 1965: 60% of men and 40% women - 2008: 20% of men and 16% of woman - 1995: 45 billion cigarettes produced (circle 112 times the globe) versus 2003: 35 billion - But increase in Canadian undergraduates - The highest per capita rates: Greece and Eastern European countries - Declining in NA and Europe but increasing in developing countries Consequences - $17 billion in costs (541$ per Canadian) so more than alcohol and illegal drugs - 40000 of Canadians died for substance related problem => 37000 related to tobacco use - Each cigarette = life: 14 minutes less - Smokers die up 12 years earlier - 525000 potential years of life lost (150000 for alcohol and 62000 for illegal drugs) - 30% of all deaths due to coronary heart disease - 80-90% chronic obstructive lung disease - 30% of all cancers - 90% of lung cancers Second hand smoke: environmental tobacco - Mainstream smoke: exhaled by the smoker - Sidestream smoke: more harmful, from lit tobacco - No smokers but co-workers yes: increasing the risk of cancer up to 30% rd - Environmental tobacco: 3 cause of death (smoking, alcohol) - Increased risk for cognitive impairments and dementia - Increased risk of death from sudden infant death syndrome (70% may be caused by smoke) Genetic influence: - Adolescent, low SES, less education, high level of coffee or alcohol consumption - Females more than male: primary reason is weight control (39%) - Social influences: peer group and parental smoking - Psychological factors: low conscientiousness, low agreeableness, high extroversion, anxiety - Comorbidity: 23% of individual without pathologies smoked, 41% with pathologies smoked o Depression: smoking, drinking, depression often occur together - Nicotine may have antidepressant effects, so maybe self-medication - Relation between adverse childhood experiences and smoking (relief) - Smoking cessation may increase the risk of relapse in depressed patients - Animal model of depression: transdermal nicotine patch: improved depressed non-smokers Nicotine: the active ingredient - First purified by 2 French: Posselt and Reimann - Nicotine is oily, brown substance and unpleasant smell - Inhalation: rapid, 90% complete and reached the brain in 7 seconds - Skin: poisoning in unprotected workers spraying insecticides - Main metabolite of nicotine: cotinine used as marker for tobacco us - 30-40% of inhaled nicotine is excreted unchanged o Dependent of urine pH: nicotine is a base, alkalinizing the urine (making it more basic) leading to a greater renal absorption, back up in the blood! - Schacter et al: smokers smoke more when they have an acid urine (nicotine more excreted) - Stress results in acidification of urine - Nicotine activates cholinergic receptors on dopaminergic neurons (in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system projecting in the VTA and the NAcc and prefrontal co
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