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Chapter

HALLUCINOGENS

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2020A/B
Professor
Riley Hinson
Semester
Fall

Description
Hallucinogen: a sensory perception that has the compelling sense of reality of true perception without external stimulation of the relevant sensory organ - comes from Latin word aluinere meaning “wander in mind” or “talk idly” - distortions of sensory information and mental confusion or delirium Psychotogenics (causing psychosis) Psychotomimetics (mimicking psychosis) Psychodysleptics (mind disrupting) Psycholytics (mind dissolving) Phantastica Psychedelics Illusiogens and Delirants Estimated 6000 different plants containing substances capable of producing hallucinogenic effects - chemically heterogeneous class of drugs 4 Categories of Hallucinogens: - Cholinergic Hallucinogens o atropine, scopolamine, arecoline, ibotenic acid - Serotonergic (5 – HT) o LSD, psilocybin mushrooms, DMT, lysergic acid amide, bufotenine - Methylated Amphetamines (Noradrenergic Hallucinogens) o Mescaline (from peyote cactus), MDMA, ecstasy - Other Hallucinogens o Dissociative anesthetic PCP, ketamine, salvinorin CHOLINERGIC HALLUCINOGENIC DRUGS Large number of plants contain substances that affect the cholinergic nervous system - lethal if taken in large quantities o probably served protective function in plants (or poisons) o humans quickly learned about the effects they produced CHOLINERGIC AGONIST: stimulate primarily muscarinic cholinergic receptors producing greater than normal activity in cholinergic nervous system - produce sedation and amnesia (history in medicine) - CNS involved in many life sustaining physiological functions and critical for learning and memory Amanita Muscaria – “The Fly Agaric Mushroom” - name from putting slices of Amanita in milk to attract and kill flies - widely distributed in temperate zone of Northern Hemisphere - bright red cap, speckled with white dots (in Disney film Fantasia) - may have been substance referred to as “soma” in Hindu legends (3500 years ago) - evidence of use in Greek mystery cults - Vikings would consume Amanita when they prepare to raid a village o Ingestion of mushrooms would produce state of “agitated rage” o Attacking Vikings called “beserkers” Contents: - ibotenic acid and muscimole most psychoactive - substances excreted in urine largely unchanged o active dose may be had by ingesting urine of someone who has previously ingested mushrooms  common practice in Siberian tribes (Koryaks)  communal drug ingestion by urinating into common pot - drug remains effective up to 5 passes out of the body Symptoms: - initial good humor, light euphoria - detachment and unreality, increasing power, agitated raving - unpleasant psychological consequences o lacrimation, sweating, pinpoint pupils, severe abdominal pains, painful diarrhea, coma, convulsions, potentially death Ibogaine – main psychoactive ingredient found in ibotenic acid - plant found in Gabon in Central Africa - used by native hunters who chew yellowish root o at low doses acts as stimulant allowing hunters to endure long treks and searches for food - effects can last up to 30 hours - 1960’s sold in France as over the counter medication for fatigue - if enough pills taken produced meditative effects where repressed childhood memories were unlocked Howard Lotsof: (heroin addict) tried drug and helped quit heroin o gained reputation for heroin addicts trying to quit o US GOVERNMENT did not find any evidence o Toronto Ibogaine Treatment Center $2500 - $4000 - increase neural activity of cholinergic pathway o increase presence of acetylcholine (Ach) by inhibiting action of cholinesterase (responsible for break down of ACh) o one inhibitor = organophosphorus compounds  chemical warfare agents, pestesides  unionizable, very lipid soluble - combination of timedoxime, atropine, benactyzine (TAB) designed to counter effects of chemical warfare provided to military personnel CHOLINERGIC ANTAGONIST: among oldest source of psychoactive compounds - earliest probably occurring in shamanistic ceremonies - block muscarinic cholinergic receptors and producing hallucinogenic effects Atropa Belladonna – “deadly nightshade” or “love apples” (aphrodisiac) - found in Europe, North Africa, and Asia - member of the potato/tomato family - produces bell shaped, purplish flowers w green, soft bluish black berries - Atropine isolated from plant in 1831 Atropos – was the eldest of 3 fates in Greek mythology and was her duty to cut the thread of life at time appointed for a persons death o atropine = poison Belladonna – ancient use women would still juices of nightshade berries in eyes causing pupils to dilate and unresponsive to light o women with large pupils were considered more beautiful Physiological Effects: - blocks cholinergic receptors and neural pathways - rapid heart beat (greater than 100 beats/min) - loss of balance, blurred vision, feeling of suffocation - paleness followed by red rash, constipation, uncontrollable body movement - Low Doses: increase in general arousal - Medium Doses: sedative effects, sensation of flying and hallucinations o when awake users may have difficult time realizing were not real and may suffer from amnesia - High Doses: powerful and frightening images (line between pleasant and frightening very close) - Ingestion of only one leaf could produce lethal effects Datura Stramonium – “jimsonweed” “devils weed” “thorn apple” “loco weed” - Scopolamine and atropine produce feeling of weightlessness and flying o Women who claimed to be witches would rub ointments made from Datura on sticks and straddle o Absorbed through vagina membrane - accidental injestion of Datura may have contributed to: o death of Marc Anthony’s Army in 36 B.C. o the defeat of British near Jamestown, Virgina 1676 - Low Doses: produce drowsiness with dream like euphoria - High Doses: produce unpleasant hallucinations, delirium, mental confusion - TODAY – cultivated for decoration o White or purple trumpet like flowers o Large leaves, thorny fruit pods containing 50 – 100 seeds - 50 seeds can produce hallucinations Henbane – Hyoscyamus niger - plant used to poison Hamlet’s father in Shakespeare play - commonly used in sexual orgies in Middle Ages - strong smelling herb native to Northern Hemisphere - purple veined, yellowish flower, hairy leaves Mandragora Officinarum - mandrake meaning “potent male” - Medieval lore says plant grew wherever a hanged man’s semen fell on ground o Would have erection and ejaculation caused by sudden snapping of the neck sending impulse down spinal cord o Named after root – resembling person - myth that plant shrieks when uprooted driving anyone mad who hears it HALLUCINOGENS OF SEROTONERGIC TYPE Drugs resemble neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT or 5-hydroxytrypamine) Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD): Trade Name: Delysid - First synthesized by Swiss chemist Albert Hoffman in 1938 o Studying derivatives of ergot fungus for vasconstrictive action and ability to give muscle tone to the uterus - LSD obtained from ergot parasitic fungus found on grains (rye, wheat) - 25 derivative produced (sometimes called LSD-25) had strong hallucinogenic properties - Hoffman’s research produced therapeutic compounds o Methergine – leading drugs in controlling uterine bleeding and muscle control o Variety of other ergot derivatives used to treat migraines - Actual recognition occurred on April 16, 1943 o Hoffman got LSD on his hands o Next day intentionally ingested 250mg to study effects o Unaware of potency – took 5x larger than minimum psychoactive dose (size and weight of grain of salt) Dr. Humphrey Osmond - A British psychiatrist working in Canada thought of using LSD as a model for schizophrenia - coined term “psychedelic” Dr. Timothy Leary & Richard Alpert - began research on psilocybin and LSD at Harvard in 1960’s - started freely distributing the drug - used in psychotherapy o thought that users would be more open to communicate inner feelings and open to suggestion Estimated that 40, 000 patients received LSD in therapeutic situations by 1965 LSD was legal in the U.S. until 1966 - Schedule I (deemed to have no medical use and high abuse potential) Peaked in 1960’s -1970’s - college students lifetime use rose from 1% in 1967 – 18% in 1971 2004 Survey Canadians 15+ - lifetime use 12% (males 16% / female 7%) - past year 1% 2004 Canadian University Students - lifetime use of hallucinogens 17% - past year use 6% - 30 day below reliable estimate 2007 Ontario High School (All hallucinogens) - lifetime estimate 20% - past year estimate 15% Street doses of LSD generally 50 – 150 micrograms Properties: - odorless, tasteless, colourless - readily absorbed through intestinal tract, easy to cross blood brain barrier and placenta barrier Administration: - typically taken as a tablet
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