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Chapter 3

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Western University
Psychology 2020A/B
Christine Tenk

Chapter 3: How drugs work in the body and on the mind. Drug administration and absorption Oral ingestion - Oldest and easiest way of taking drugs - Safest method of drug admin - Begins after 5 mins after ingestion, but full ingestion is complete 6 – 8 hours. - Weakly acidic drugs are absorbed faster - If drugs are lipid soluble - When consumed orally, you usually have to take higher doses. Injection - Directly into the bloodstream - READ the 3 types of injection from textbook (Pg 62-63)!! - If injected into a muscle = high absorption Inhalation - Can be vapour or smoked - Is the fastest method of drug admin - Second easiest way of taking a drug - Reaches the brain faster than any other way, 5-8 seconds - Can cause lung damage Absorption - When the drug passes through membranes outside of the body - Eg: nicotine patch, birth control patchs - Whne ppl snort cocaine it sticks to the mucus and goes through the nasal membrane - Rectal suppository – absorped from the anus. Note - Oral is the slowest method of drug admin - Second slowest – absorption - Third slowest – injection, the most dangerous b/c ppl can inject high doses at a time. - Fastest – inhalation Drug Elimination Biotransformation - drugs are broken down to smaller pieces called metabolites - Usually drugs are water soluble, they are eliminated by urine, sweat and exhalation. - 1. Urine - 2. Exhaled breath - 3. Sweat Elimination half-life - amount of time it takes to reduce a drug by 50% - Nicotene = a few hours - Cocaine – a few hours - Marijuana – several days, can take a month to eliminate Factors determining drug impact - Delivery and timing - Latency period – amount of time it takes for the drugs to have its affect on the body and is dependent on method of admin. Drug interaction Agnostic - When you put two drugs together, both the drugs will be expressed in the body and have increased affects of the drugs. - Additive – Eg: Advil cold and sinus has painkiller affects and deconjestion affects when you take. So it has the same affects if you had taken them separately. Hyperadditive - Such as alcohol with sleep meds - Lanoxin (heart meds) with bran and oatmeal – increa
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