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Chapter 7

Chapter 7.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2030A/B
Professor
David Vollick

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Description
Abnormal Psychology Chapter 7 Mood DisordersAn Overview of Depression and ManiaMood Disorders characterized by gross deviations in moodThe fundamental experiences of depression and mania contribute either singly or together to all the mood disordersMost commonly diagnosed and most severe depression is major depressive episodeAn extremely depressed mood state that lasts at least two weeks an includes cognitive symptoms and disturbed physical functions to the point that even the slightest activity or movement requires an overwhelming effortTypically accompanied by a marked general loss of interest and of the ability to experience any pleasure form life including interactions with family or friends and accomplishments at work or at schoolThe physical changes are central to this disorder as they strongly indicate a full major depressive episodeAverage duration if untreated is 9 monthsMania abnormally exaggerated elation joy or euphoriaMania individuals find extreme pleasure in every activityThe become extraordinarily active requiring very little sleep and may develop grandiose plansSpeech is typically very rapid and may become incoherent this feature is typically referred to as flight of ideasDuration of only one week less if the episode is severe enough to require hospitalizationIrritability is often part of a manic episode usually near the endBeing anxious or depressed is also commonly part of maniaAverage duration of untreated episode is 26 monthsHypomanic episode less severe version of a manic episode that does not cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioningThe Structure of Mood DisordersIndividuals who experience either depression or mania are said to have a unipolar mood disorderAlmost everyone with a unipolar mood disorder has unipolar depressionSomeone who alternates between depression and mania is said to have bipolar mood disorderThis label is somewhat misleading because depression and elation may not exactly be at opposite end of the same mood stateAn individual can experience manic symptoms but feel somewhat depressed or anxious at the same time This combination is called the dysphoric manic or mixed episodeRecent research suggests that manic episodes are characterized by dysphoric features more commonly than was thought and dysphoria can be severeDepression and mania differ from one person to another in terms of their severity their course and occasionally the accompanying inflated selfesteem or grandiosityMore common to see patients with a mix of such symptomsDepressive Disorders Clinical DescriptionsThe most easily recognized mood disorder is major depressive disorder single episodeThis is defined by the absence of manic of hypomanic episodes before or during the episodeOccurrence of this type is rareIf two or more major depressive episodes occurred and were separated by at least 2 months during which the individual was not depressed major depressive disorder recurrent is diagnosedRecurrence is very important in predicting the future course of the disorder as well as in choosing appropriate treatmentsIndividuals with recurrent major depression usually have a family history of depression unlike people who experience single episodesUnipolar depression is usually a chronic conditionDuration of recurrent major depression is 5 months somewhat shorted than the average length of the first episodeDysthymic Disorder shares many of the symptoms of major depressive disorder but differs in its courseThe symptoms are somewhat milder but remain relatively unchanged over long periods of timeThis disorder is defined as persistently depressed mood that continues for a least 2 years during which the patient cannot be symptom free for more than 2 months at a timeDiffers from major depressive episode only in the severity chronicity and number of its symptoms which are milder and fewer but last longerIndividuals who experience both major depression episodes and dysthymic disorder are said to have double depressionTypically dysthymic disorder develops first perhaps at an early age and then one or more major depressive episodes occur laterDepressive Disorders Onset and DurationThe mean age of onset for major depressive disorder is 25 years in subjects who are not treated and 29 years for patients who are in treatmentAverage age of onset seems to be decreasingThe prevalence of major depression increases dramatically during the adolescent years particularly in adolescent girlsThe incidence of depression and consequent suicide seem to be increasingIncreased risk of developing depression in younger people over the yearsThe length of depressive episodes can be from 2 weeks to several years with an average duration of the first episode being 69 months if untreated
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