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Chapter 11

Psychology 2030A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Sympathetic Nervous System, Cerebral Cortex, Novelty Seeking


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2030A/B
Professor
Hayden Woodley
Chapter
11

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Chapter11PersonalityDisorders
ClinicalFeaturesofPersonalityDisorders
adultpersonalityattunedtothedemandofsociety
societalexpectations
PersonalityDisorder
Psychodynamictheorists:“characterdisorders”
Characterizedbytwoleadingprinciples:
1.chronicinterpersonaldifficulties
2.problemswithone’sidentityorsenseofself
GeneralDSMIVTRStandardstoclassifyonewithpersonalitydisorder
mustbepervasiveandinflexible
stableandoflongduration
causeclinicallysignificantdistressorimpairmentinfunctioning
manifestedinatleasttwo:cognition,affectivity,interpersonalfunctioning,impulsecontrol
Tothegeneralpublictheyare:
confusing,exasperating,unpredictable,unacceptable
donotstemfromdeliberatingreactionstostressintherecentpast(i.e.PTSD)
stem:fromgradualdevelopmentofinflexibleanddistortedpersonalityandbehaviouralpatternsthat
resultinpersistentmaladaptivewaysofperceiving,thinkingaboutandrelatingtotheworld
stressfullifeeventsplayimpact(early)
13%ofpeoplesufferfromatleastonepersonalitydisorderatleastonceintheirlife
DSMIVTR/DSMIII/DSMIIIR
AxisII:differentenoughfromthestandardpsychiatricsyndromesowarrantseparate
classification
AxisI:alsopresent,i..emooddisorders,anxietydisorders,sexualdeviance,substanceabuse
etc.
DifficultiesDoingResearchonPersonalityDisorders
Diagnosing:
notsharplydefined
diagnosisbasedoninferredtraits/consistentbehaviours
requiresmorejudgement
semistructuredinterviews/selfreportinventoriesdiagnosticreliabilityhasincreased
researchresultsarerarelyreplicatedincomparisontootherresearchreports
diagnosticcategoriesarenotmutuallyexclusive
personcontainingmorethanonepersonalitydisorder(i.e.mistrust,paranoid
personalitydisorder,butalsowithschizoid)
hence,unreliabilityofdiagnostics
ledtothecreationofdimensionalsystemsofassessmentfordisordersi.e.Dimensional

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AssessmentofPersonalityPathology(DAPP)
FiveFactorModelofPersonalitytraits
1.Neuroticism
2.extroversion/introversion
3.opennesstoexperience
4.agreeableness/antagonism
5.conscientiousness
commonalitiesanddistinctionsbetweenthedifferentpersonalitydisordersbyassessinghow
theseindividualsscoreonthefivebasicpersonalitytraits
i..etraitneuroticismcomprisesofsixfacets:anxiety,angryhostility,depression,
selfconsciousness,impulsiveness,vulnerability
i.e.trait:Extraversion:warmth,gregariousness,assertiveness,activity,excitementseeking,
positiveemotions
DifficultiesinStudyingtheCausesofPersonalityDisorders
littleisknownaboutcausalfactors(DSMIIIpublished1980nottoolongago)
highlevelofcomorbidity
i.e.85%whoqualifiedforonepersonalitydisorderdiagnosisalsoqualifiedforatleast
onemore
addstothedifficultyofuntanglingwhichcausalfactorsareassociatedwithwhich
disorder
littleprospectiveresearch
Biologicalfactorsinfant’stemperament(unborndispositiontoeffectivelyreactto
environmentalstimuli)
predisposestodevelopment(personalitytraitsordisorders)
temperamentlaysfoundationforhumanpersonalitydevelopment(butnotthesole
determinant)
mostaremoderatelyheritable
mosthavegeneticcontribution
TwinStudy1500monozygoticanddizygotictwins
1884
disordersaremediatedbythegeneticcontributionstotheprimarytraitdimensionsmost
implicatedineachdisorderratherthantothedisordersthemselves
psychodynamictheoristsdevelopmentofcharacterdisorderstoaninfantgettingexcessivevs.
insufficientgratificationofhis/herimpulsesinthefirstfewyearsoflife
learnedbasedhabitpatterns+maladaptivecognitivestyles=mostprobablecausalfactors
disturbedparentchildattachmentrelationships
parentalpsychopathologyandineffectiveparentingpractises
earlyemotionalphysicalandsexualabuse

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socioculturalfactors:socialstressors,societalchanges,culturalvalues
CategoriesofPersonalityDisorders:
DSMIVTR
ClusterA
odd/eccentric
unusualbehaviour(distrust,suspiciousness,socialdetachment)
paranoid,schizoid,schizotypalpersonalitydisorders(PSS)
ClusterB
dramatic,emotional,erratic
histrionic,narcissistic,antisocial,borderlinepersonalitydisorders(BANH)
ClusterC
anxietyandfearfulness
avoidant,dependent,obsessivecompulsivepersonalitydisorders(DAO)
AdditionalPersonalityDisorders:
depressive
passiveaggressive
(provisionalcategoryinappendix)
DISORDE
R
EXPLANATION
CRITERIA
Paranoid
Personality
Disorder
pervasivesuspiciousness
distrustofothers
interpersonaldifficulties
seethemselvesasblameless
onguardallthetime
beargrudges
quicktoreactwithanger
notusuallypsychotic
clearcontactwithreality
paranoidschizophreniashares
symptoms
butp.schiz.shaveadditional
problems(persistentlosswith
reality,delusions,hallucinations
etc.)
prevalence0.52.5%
CausalFactors:
genetictransmissions
heritabilityofhighlevelsof
A.Evidenceofpervasivedistrustor
suspiciousnessofotherspresentinatleastfourof
thefollowing:
pervasivesuspiciousnessinbeingdeceived,
harmed,orexploited
unjustifieddoubtsaboutloyaltyor
trustworthinessoffriendsorassociates
reluctancetoconfideinothersbecauseof
doubtsofloyaltyortrustworthiness
hiddendemeaningorthreateningmeaningsread
intobenignremarksorevents
bearsgrudges
angryreactionstoperceivedattackson
characterorreputation
recurrentsuspicionsregardingfidelityofspouse
orsexualpartner
B.Doesnotoccurexclusivelyduringcourseof
schizophrenia,MoodDisorderwithPsychotic
Features,orotherpsychoticdisorder
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