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Chapter 2

Abnormal Psych Chapter 2 Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2030A/B
David Vollick

Chapter 2: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology Research at the cellular level -Neuroanatomy- structure of the nervous system -Two main parts of the nervous system 1. CNS- brain and spinal cord 2. PNS -showed diagram of neuron -translational research- combines science research with clinical research The structure of the brain -Brain stem- controls fundamental biological functioning- ex. breathing (the basic stuff) -Medulla, pons, and cerebellum- regulate breathing, heart beat and motor control -cerebellum looks a lot like a little brain itself and has to do with movement (balance) -Midbrain- coordinates sensory info and movement -Thalamus- relay station, directing nerve signals that carry sensory info to the cortex -Hypothalamus- homeostasis -Forebrain- cerebral cortex plus: -Limbic system- generates emotion -includes theAmygdala, the cingulate gyrus, and the hippocampus (LTM)- deals primarily with emotions and impulses -Hippocampus- memory formation- liked with memory defictis -Basal ganglia- don't worry about what is in it -showed diagram of brain Memory -known as H.M -age 16 developed grand mal seizures -left and right hemisphere that communicate to one another, when you have seizures, abnormal firings between left and right hemisphere -removed hippocampus on one side to stop seizures, but did not know that the other hippocampus was not working either therefore could not save new long term memories -able to recall LTM that occurred before the surgery -STM is not dependent on functioning hippocampus -LTM must go through the hippocampus to be stored The cerebral cortex and its lobes -higher cognitive functioning, including reasoning, abstract thought (ex. love), perception of time, and creativity -two hemisphere: 1. left side- language and cognitive functioning and tends to process info in a more linear and logical manner 2. right side- processes the world in a holistic manner, spatial context, creativity, imagery and intuition -each consists of four lobes: temporal (hearing and memory), parietal, occipital (vision), and frontal 1. Temporal lobe- auditory and verbal info, labeling objects and verbal memory 2. Parietal lobe- integrates sensory info from various sources and may be involved with visuospatial processing -Broca's area 3. Occipital lobe- center for visual processing 4. Frontal lobe- reasoning, impulse control, judgment, language, memory, motor functioning, problem solving and sexual and social behaviour 5. Corpus callosum- allows both hemispheres to communicate The peripheral nervous system (PNS) -sensory somatic nervous system- cranial nerves which control sensation and muscle movement -autonomic nervous system- sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system -SNS- controls involuntary movements, activates the body, and creates a bodily state of arousal that could indicate the presence of stress or anxiety -PNS returns the body functioning to resting levels The endocrine system -connection between nervous system and hormones -hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism -showed diagram Neuroimaging -taking pictures of the brain -neuroanatomy (the brain structure) -CT or CAT scan (computerized axial tomography)- radioactive dyes, x-rays -MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)- radiofrequency waves and magnetic fields -other technology- neurophysiology -PET scan (positron emission tomography) -fMRI (functional MRI)- shows functioning of brain Genetics -DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) -exists in humans as the human genome -genes- can exist in several different forms, called alleles, and specific alleles create variation in species -23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 somatic and 1 sex chromosome pair -influence of genes on characteristics- height, eye colour, various diseases, personality, attitudes, abnormal behaviour -figure showing human chromosomes 1. Behavioural genetics -the study of behaviour that does not examine genes directly, but infers the action of genes and environment -family studies- familial aggregation (a bunch of relatives together), family history, and family study- genetic vs. environmental?? -adoption studies- biological parents vs. adopted away offspring and adoption placement- not work for selective adoptions -twin studies- within the same family or adopted at birth -monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins 2. Molecular genetics -structure and function of genes at the molecular level. 3 methods: -genomewide linkage analysis- large families with the disorder or large samples of affected relative pairs -narrow the search for genes from the whole genome to specific areas on specific chromosomes -candidate gene association study- compares a large group of individuals who have a specific trait or disease with a well matched group (ex. same SES) of individuals without a trait or disease -genome association study Research at the individual level 1. case study- a comprehensive description of an individual or group of individuals -benefits - can focus on the assessment and description of abnormal behaviour or its treatment -examination of rare phenomena -generates hypothesis for group studies -allows practitioners to be involved in research -illustrates important clinical issues that are not readily available in a gro
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