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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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Psychology 2030A/B
Doug Hazlewood

CHAPTER 1 1/11/11 9:38 PM ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDER Psychological dysfunction within an individual that is associated with distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not typical or culturally expected JODY blood-injury-injection-phobia PHOBIA a psychological disorder characterized by marked and persistent fear of an object or situation What is A Psychological Disorder? Psychological dysfunction within an individual associated with distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not typical or culturally expected 1.PSYCHOLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION 2.DISTRESS OR IMPAIRMENT 3.ATYPICAL RESPONSE PSYCHOLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION Refers to a breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioural functioning Knowing where to draw the line between normal and abnormal dysfunction is often difficult For this reason, these problems are often considered to exist on a CONTINUUM or as a DIMENSION, rather than as categories that are either present of absent Reason just having a dysfunction is not enough to meet the CRITERIA for a psychological disorder PERSONAL DISTRESS That the disorder or behaviour must be associated with DISTRESS adds an important component and seems clear Criterion is satisfied if the individual is extremely upset oEx. Jody distressed & suffered from phobia Normal to be distressed i.e. someone close to you dies IMPAIRMENT concept is useful ex. Many people consider themselves shy or lazy but this doesnt mean they are abnormal BUT if you are so shy finding it impossible to interact then your social functioning is impaired *most psychological disorders are simply extreme expressions of otherwise normal emotions, behaviours, and cognitive processes Atypical or Not Culturally Expected Something is considered abnormal because it occurs infrequently; it deviates from the average Greater the deviation = the more abnormal it is The more productive you are in the eyes of society, the more eccentricities society will tolerate therefore deviating from average doesnt work very well as a definition Violating social norms this def is very useful in considering important cultural differences in psychological disorders o Ex. To enter a trance state and believe you are possessed would point to a psychological disorder in most Western cultures, but in many other societies the behaviour is accepted and expected Informative example provided by the prominent neuroscientist SAPOLSKY (2002), who worked closely with the MASAI TRIBE in East Africa o Woman had been acting aggressive and hearing voices, killed a goat with own hands transported to a local health centre learned Masais view of psychological disorder their reasoning of her being crazy were contradicted However, a social standard of normal has been misused WAKEFIELD (1992) uses definition harmful dysfunction related concept that is useful to determine whether the behaviour is beyond the individuals control (something he or she doesnt want to do) DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL (DSM-IV-TR, AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION) contains the current listing of criteria for psychological disorders CONCLUSION difficult to define normal and abnormal Most widely accept definition, used in DSM-IV-TR describes behavioural, emotional, or cognitive dysfunctions that are unexpected in their cultural context and associated with personal distress or substantial impairment in functioning as abnormal o Can be used across cultures and subcultures if we pay very careful attention to what is functional or dysfunctional (or out of control) in a given society Best we can do is to consider how the apparent disease or disorder matches up to a typical profile of, say, depression or anxiety in each individual case Typical profile PROTOTYPE patient can have some features or symptoms of disorder not all and still meet criteria The Science of Psychopathology PSYCHOPATHOLOGY is the scientific study of psychological disorders oClinical, counseling psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric social workers, psychiatric nurses Clinical psychologists receive a Ph.D. following a course of graduate-level study that lasts approx. five years oOthers receive Psy.D. (Doctor of Psychology_ - focus more on clinical practice and less on research training oNo Psy.D. currently exist in Canada oIn Canada, regulation of the psychology profession is under the jurisdiction of the provinces and territories oEither have masters degree or a doctoral ??? The Scientific-Practitioner Most recent development in the history of psychotherapy is the adoption of scientific methods to learn more about the nature of psychological disorders, their causes, and their treatment SCIENTIST-PRACTITIONER MODEL expectations that mental health professionals will apply scientific methods to their work. They must keep current in the latest research on diagnosis and treatment, they must evaluate their own methods for effectiveness, and they may generate their own research to discover new knowledge of disorders and their treatment o producers of research o consumers of research o evaluators of their work using Empirical methods Clinical Description PRESENTING PROBLEM original complaint reported by the client to the therapist. The actual treated problem may sometimes be a modification derived from the presenting problem oPresent indication of why the person came to the clinic Describing patients presenting problem is the first step in determining his CLINICAL DESCRIPTION details of the combination of behaviours, thoughts, and feelings of an individual that make up a particular disorder oClinical refers both to the types of problems or disorders you would find in a clinic or hospital and to the activities connected with assessment and treatment IMPORTANT FUNCTION of CD specify what makes the disorder different from normal behaviour as well statistical data oPREVALENCE number of people displaying a disorder in the total population at any given time (compare with incidence) oINCIDENCE number of new cases of a disorder appearing during a specific time period (compare with prevalence) oSex-ratio percentage of males/females have the disorder oAge of onset differs from disorder to another COURSE pattern of development and change of a disorder over time oEx. Schizophrenia follow a chronic course, meaning tend to last long time vs. mood disorders follow an episodic course in which the individual is likely to recover within a few months may occur again later Differences in onset: oAcute onset being suddenly oInsidious onset develop gradually over an extended time PROGNOSIS predicted future development of a disorder over time oEx. Prognosis is good patient will most likely recover oThe prognosis is guarded meaning outcome doesnt look good Causation, Treatment and Outcomes ETIOLOGY cause or source of disorder oWhat causes it includes biological, psychological and social dimensions oThe effect does not necessarily imply the cause Ex. Aspirin to relieve a tension headache if you feel better, it does not mean the headache was caused by a lack of aspirin in the first place THE PAST: HISTORICAL CONCEPTIONS OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR Three major models explain why someone is acting like that the supernatural, the biological, and the psychological model 1. The Supernatural Tradition Demons and Witches oLast quarter of 14thcentury religious and lay authorities supported these superstitions and society as a whole began to believe in the reality and power of demons and witches oPeople turned to magic and sorcery to solve their problems oBizarre behaviour (psychological disorders) were seen as the work of the devil and witches oTreatments included exorcism, shaving pattern of cross in peoples hair and securing them to wall near front of church so they can benefit from hearing mass
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