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Chapter 2

Psychology 2030A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Reflex Syncope, Tachycardia, Spinal Cord


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2030A/B
Professor
Doug Hazlewood
Chapter
2

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ONE DIMENSIONAL OR MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODELS
Abnormal behaviour results from multiple influences
oBiology, behaviour, cognitive, emotional, social and cultural
environment – all components – MULTIDIMENSIONAL model
JODY’S PROBLEM
Behavioral influences
oConditioned response to sight of blood
oTend to escape and avoid situations involving blood
Biological Influences
oExperiences vasovagal syncope – common cause of fainting
Increased heart rate (probably didn’t notice)
Emotional Influences
oFear and anxiety – can affect blood pressure, heart rate, and
respiration
Social Influences
Developmental Influences
oThe passage of time
oDevelopmental critical period – when we are more or less
reactive to a given situation or influence than at other times
May have been previously exposed to other situations
involving blood
GENETIC CONTRIBUTIONS TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
GENES – very long molecules of DNA at various locations on
chromosomes within the cell nucleus
Because there is plenty of room for the environment to influence our
development within the constraints set by out genes, many reasons
exist for the development of individual differences
Nature of Genes
46 chromo – 23 pairs
first 22 chromo provide programs for BODY AND BRAIN, last pair
determine individual’s sex
DOMINANT GENE: is one of a pair of genes that determines a
particular trait
RECESSIVE GENE: must be paired with another recessive gene to
determine a trait
POLYGENIC: influenced by many genes, each contributing only a tiny
effect
oBehaviour, personality, and even IQ are P
Contribution of genetics to psychological disorders and related
behavioural patterns: 50%
CHAPTER 2 1/20/11 4:27 PM

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Specific cognitive abilities – memory, perception, intelligence –
32%-62%
This evidence states that genetic factors contribute to ALL disorders
but account for less than half the explanation
The Interaction of Genetic and Environmental Factors
Kandel – process of learning affects more than behaviour
Environment may occasionally turn on certain genes – affects
biochemical functioning in the brain
BRAIN AND FUNCTIONS ARE PLASTIC
oSubject to continual change in response to the environment
THE DIATHESIS-STRESS MODEL
oHypothesis that an inherited tendency (a vulnerability) and
specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder
oEach inherited tendency is a DIATHESIS, which is a condition
that makes a person susceptible to developing a disorder
oPg. 36
THE RECIPROCAL GENE-ENVIRONMENT MODEL
o Genetic endowment may actually increase the probability that
an individual will experience stressful life events
oEx. Jody – has a genetic vulnerability to develop a certain
disorder – may also have a personality trait – impulsiveness –
that makes the more likely to be involved in minor accidents
that would result in their seeing blood
Prone to accidents and to get to places without regard for
their physical safety
oHave a genetically determined tendency to create the very
environmental risk factors that trigger a genetic vulnerability
to blood-injury injection phobias
Especially DEPRESSION – seek hard relationships
NON-GEONOMIC INHERITANCE OF BEHAVIOUR
oComplex reaction of the two
NEUROSCIENCE AND ITS CONTRIBUTIONS TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
Neuroscience – the study of the nervous system and its role in
behavior, thoughts, and emotions
Nervous System – CNS & - PNS
CNS – Brain, Spinal cord PNS – ANS & SNS
ANS – para & sym SNS – voluntary muscles

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CNS
Composed of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD
SPINAL CORD: Primary function: facilitate the sending of messages to
and from the brain
BRAIN: uses neurons – transmit info through the NS
NEURON: transmission of info from one to the other
oContain central cell body
oTwo branches: dendrite (many receptors that receive messages
in the form of chemical impulses from other nerve cells, which
are converted into electrical impulses); axon (transmits these
impulses to other neurons)
oNerve cells aren’t actually connected – small space which
impulse must pass to get to next neuron – synaptic cleft
oNeurotransmitters – chemicals that cross the synaptic cleft
between nerve cells to transmit impulses from one neuron to
the next. Their relative excess or deficient is involved in
several psychological disorders
Major neurotransmitters: norepinephrine, serotonin,
dopamine, GABA
Structure of the Brain
BRAIN STEM – lowest part of the brainstem is the HINBRAIN
pons, medulla, cerebellum
oSupport bodily processes – automatic processes
oCerebellum – controls motor coordination
oMedulla – unconscious bodily functions, such as breathing,
swallowing
oLocated about the medulla is the PONS which serves a bridge to
connect the brainstem and the cerebellum – receive info from
visual areas and play a role in sleep and arouse
oMidbrain – coordinates movement with sensory input
oThalamus and hypothalamustop of brain stem – involved
with regulating behaviour and emotions
Limbic system – at the base of the forebrain “boarder”
oThis system helps regulate our emotional experiences and
expressions – also involved with drives such as sex,
aggression, hunger, and thirst
oComprises of the HIPPOCAMPUS, SEPTUM, CINGULATE GYRUS,
AMYGDALA
Basal Ganglia – base of the forebrain – include CAUDATE NUCLEUS
oBelieved to control motor function
Cerebral Cortex
oLargest part of the forebrain – more than 80%
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