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Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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Western University
Psychology 2030A/B
Doug Hazlewood

CHAPTER 2 1/20/11 4:27 PM ONE DIMENSIONAL OR MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODELS Abnormal behaviour results from multiple influences oBiology, behaviour, cognitive, emotional, social and cultural environment all components MULTIDIMENSIONAL model JODYS PROBLEM Behavioral influences o Conditioned response to sight of blood oTend to escape and avoid situations involving blood Biological Influences oExperiences vasovagal syncope common cause of fainting Increased heart rate (probably didnt notice) Emotional Influences oFear and anxiety can affect blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration Social Influences Developmental Influences oThe passage of time oDevelopmental critical period when we are more or less reactive to a given situation or influence than at other times May have been previously exposed to other situations involving blood GENETIC CONTRIBUTIONS TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY GENES very long molecules of DNA at various locations on chromosomes within the cell nucleus Because there is plenty of room for the environment to influence our development within the constraints set by out genes, many reasons exist for the development of individual differences Nature of Genes 46 chromo 23 pairs first 22 chromo provide programs for BODY AND BRAIN, last pair determine individuals sex DOMINANT GENE: is one of a pair of genes that determines a particular trait RECESSIVE GENE: must be paired with another recessive gene to determine a trait POLYGENIC: influenced by many genes, each contributing only a tiny effect oBehaviour, personality, and even IQ are P Contribution of genetics to psychological disorders and related behavioural patterns: 50% Specific cognitive abilities memory, perception, intelligence 32%-62% This evidence states that genetic factors contribute to ALL disorders but account for less than half the explanation The Interaction of Genetic and Environmental Factors Kandel process of learning affects more than behaviour Environment may occasionally turn on certain genes affects biochemical functioning in the brain BRAIN AND FUNCTIONS ARE PLASTIC oSubject to continual change in response to the environment THE DIATHESIS-STRESS MODEL oHypothesis that an inherited tendency (a vulnerability) and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder oEach inherited tendency is a DIATHESIS, which is a condition that makes a person susceptible to developing a disorder oPg. 36 THE RECIPROCAL GENE-ENVIRONMENT MODEL o Genetic endowment may actually increase the probability that an individual will experience stressful life events oEx. Jody has a genetic vulnerability to develop a certain disorder may also have a personality trait impulsiveness that makes the more likely to be involved in minor accidents that would result in their seeing blood Prone to accidents and to get to places without regard for their physical safety oHave a genetically determined tendency to create the very environmental risk factors that trigger a genetic vulnerability to blood-injury injection phobias Especially DEPRESSION seek hard relationships NON-GEONOMIC INHERITANCE OF BEHAVIOUR oComplex reaction of the two NEUROSCIENCE AND ITS CONTRIBUTIONS TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Neuroscience the study of the nervous system and its role in behavior, thoughts, and emotions Nervous System CNS & - PNS CNS Brain, Spinal cord PNS ANS & SNS ANS para & sym SNS voluntary musclesCNS Composed of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD SPINAL CORD: Primary function: facilitate the sending of messages to and from the brain BRAIN: uses neurons transmit info through the NS NEURON: transmission of info from one to the other oContain central cell body oTwo branches: dendrite (many receptors that receive messages in the form of chemical impulses from other nerve cells, which are converted into electrical impulses); axon (transmits these impulses to other neurons) oNerve cells arent actually connected small space which impulse must pass to get to next neuron synaptic cleft oNeurotransmitters chemicals that cross the synaptic cleft between nerve cells to transmit impulses from one neuron to the next. Their relative excess or deficient is involved in several psychological disorders Major neurotransmitters: norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, GABA Structure of the Brain BRAIN STEM lowest part of the brainstem is the HINBRAIN
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