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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

11 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2030A/B
Professor
Doug Hazlewood

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CHAPTER 4 1/23/11 4:18 PM Research on Psychological disorders includes: presenting problem causation treatment and outcome BASIC COMPONENTS OF A RESEARCH STUDY Start with a HYPOTHESIS, about what you expect to find then decide how you want to test his hypothesis with RESEARCH DESIGN RD: includes the aspects you want to measure in the people you are studying (the dependent variable) and the influences on their behaviours (the independent variable) Two forms of validity are specific to research studies: internal and external INTERNAL VALIDITY: is the extent to which we can be confident that the independent variable is causing the dependent variable to change EXTERNAL VALIDITY: refers to how well the results relate to things outside your study; in other words, how well your findings describe similar individuals who were not amount the study subjects HYPOTHESIS An educated guess or statement to be supported by data Abnormal behaviour defies the regularity and predictability we desire Initial phase of a research study hypothesis formation Next step put it in unambiguous words and a form that is testable the way the question is stated should suggest the researchers already know the answer to their question OBVY they dont but phrasing it this way makes it testable Opposite is the NULL HYPOTHESIS o Example: researchers posed the H that administations of a mildly intoxicating does of alcohol, relative to adminitation of a nonalcoholic control beverage, would lead to increases in several parameters of gambling behaviour o Opposite: it IS possible that this low does of A might have no impact on any aspect of gambling behaviour (null hypothesis) This concept of testability (the ability to support the hypothesis is important for science because it allows use to search further Also specify dependent and independent variables oDependent is what is expected to change or influenced by the study oIndependent variable causes or influences behaviour (alcohol) INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL VALIDITY Confound relates to INTERNAL validity any factor occurring in a study that makes the results uninterprable oEx. If some people drank coffee before they came into the lab affects data makes the results un-interptrable oMakes the research internally INVALID Scientists use many strategies to ensure internal validity to their studies oControl group people are similar to the experimental group in every way EXCEPT that members of the experimental group are exposed to the independent variable and those in the control group are not oControl groups help rule out alternative explanations for results, thereby strengthening internal validity Help rule out alternative explanations for results aka strengthening internal validity Ex. Half the gamblers were assigned alcohol, other half was not oRandomization is the process of assigning people to different research groups in such a way that each person has an equal chance of being place in any group Eliminates any systematic bias oAnalogue models create in the controlled conditions of the lab aspects that are comparable (analogous) to the phenomena under study Ex. Bulimia study - could ask volunteers to binge eat in the lab, quesionoing them before they arte, while they were eating, and after they finished to learn whether eating in this way made them feel more or less anxious if volunteers are of any age, race, gender, background, can rule pit influences on the subjects attitudes not just have bulimics Strengthen internal validity GENERALIZABILITY the extent to which results apply to everyone with a particular disorder STATISTICAL versus CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCEStatistical significance probability that obtaining the observed research findings merely by chance is small then leads you to think of the SIZE OF THE EFFECT ex. People hurting themselves, is statistically significant but when you look at the people who were rated as imorved, you find they still hit themselves about six times per day even though frequency is lower, they are still hurting themselves suggests statistical significance may not be CLINICALLY significant Clinical significance - degree to which research findings have USEFUL and MEANINFUL applications to real problems Clinically importance to the people that hurt themselves Now concern for the CS of results has led researches to develop statistical methods that address not just the fact that groups are different, but how large these differences are, effect size oInstead of just looking at the results of the group as a whole, individual differences are considered as well STUDYING INDIVIDUAL CASES What is the best way to begin exploring a relatively UNKNOWN DISORDER? Case Study Method intensively investigating one
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