Psychology 2030A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Middle Temporal Gyrus, Auditory Cortex, Auditory Hallucination

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CHAPTER 13 – Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders
(464-499)
SCHIZOPHRENIA – the disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of
cognitive and emotional dysfunctions including delusions and hallucinations,
disorganized speech and behaviour, and inappropriate emotions
Many live in poverty and unemployed
1 out of every 100 people experience it at some point in their lives
NATURE OF SCHIZOPHRENIA AND PSYCHOSIS: AN OVERVIEW
Schizophrenia vs. Psychosis
oPsychosis – broad term referring to hallucinations and/or
delusion
H – sensory experiences in the absence of external
events; can be either visual/auditory/sensation in the
skin
D – irrational beliefs; beliefs that don’t make sense
Ex. If I stopped thinking about a certain thing –
world will collapse and everyone will die
They are pervasive – encompass their whole life
Unstoppable – doesn’t matter how much you talk
about them or how realistic they are – still believe
in them
oSchizophrenia – a type of psychosis with disturbed thought,
language, emotion, and behavior
DT – thought process is not the same as ours
When they are talking – they’ll be talking about
something that doesn’t make sense
May never show emotion or may show inappropriate
emotion
Behaviour – kind of bizarre; may not ever move
Early ideas about Schizophrenia
oKraeplin
He combined several symptoms of insanity that had
usually been viewed as reflecting separate and distinct
disorders…
Combinations of symptoms (catatonia, hebephrenia, &
paranoia) = dementia praecox
Catatonia – alternating immobility and excited
agitation
Hebeprenia – silly and immature emotionality
Paranoia – delusions of grandeur or persecution
LECTURE 11 3/28/11 6:56 PM
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Schizophrenia believes this is going to happen to
them
Distinct from bipolar (don’t have the ups and downs –
don’t have manic nor do they have the depressive
stage) as well - dementia praecox = an early age of
onset and a poor outcome were characteristics
Focused on the onset and outcomes
What happens once it starts
Is this person going to get better? Worse? Stay the
same?
oBleuler
Introduced the term ‘schizophrenia’ or ‘associative
splitting of the mind or personality’
Not associated with anything
The label was significant b/c it signaled Bleuler’s
departure from K on what he thought was the core
problem
Believe that underlying all the unusual behaviours shown
by people with this disorder was an associative splitting
of the basic functions of personality
As well – believed the difficulty keeping a consistent train
of thought, characteristic of all persons with this
disorder, led to the many and diverse symptoms they
displayed…
Cognitive impairments
Thoughts – deficits in the way they think
oMany of K & B’s ideas are still with us
SCHIZOPHRENIA: THE “POSITIVE” SYMPTOM CLUSTER
The positive symptoms – Active manifestations
oThings like hallucinations, delusions
oGenerally include the more active manifestations of abnormal
behaviour, such as D and H
Delusions
oA belief that would be seen by most members of a society as a
misinterpretation of reality is called a disorder of thought or a
delusion
oGross misrepresentations of reality (delusions of grandeur,
paranoia, persecution, Capgras syndrome, or Cotard’s
syndrome)
Delusion of grandeur
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Believing they are someone famous or important
people
Ex. Arthur’s belief that he could end starvation for
all the world’s children is also a DOG
Delusion of persecution
Belief that others are “out to get them” – can be the
most disturbing
Ex. biker
Capgras – belief that a person, someone I know, has been
replaced by a double
Cotard’s – may believe a part of your body has changed in
an impossible way
Ex. Brain now is six times bigger than it should be –
thinks it explains why they are so smart
Delusion of grandeur – beliefs that are unrealistic
Believing they are famous or important people
Jesus Christ
Ex. Arthur’s belief that he could end starvation for
all the world’s children
Delusion of persecution – belief that others are “out to get
them” – can be the most disturbing
Ex. Biker who thought competitors were trying to
sabotage her
Capgras – belief that a person, someone I know, has been
replaced by a double
Ex. man thought his wife and daughter had been
replaced by imposters
Cotard’s – may believe a part of your body has changed in
an impossible way
Ex. Brain now is six times bigger than it should be –
thinks it explains why they are so smart
oEvent-related brain potentials – smaller N400
Why do delusions persist in the face of contradictory
information? One possible explanation is that the new
info is NOT PROPERLY INTEGRATED
Investigated this possibility in a sample of patients with S
using event-related brain potential (ERP)
A magnitude of a particular brain wave (N400) has
been proposed as an index of integration of new
info that is inconsistent with expectation
Certain parts of the EMG that is picked up – called N400
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