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Chapter Final

Final Exam Review Includes chapter summaries for all chapters covered on the final exam, including: 3, 4, 6, 13, 14, 15, & 16 very detailed and organized


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2035A/B
Professor
Doug Hazlewood
Chapter
Final

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Chapter 13: Development and Expression of Sexuality 12/13/2010 7:11:00 PM
Becoming a Sexual Person
Key Aspects of Sexual Identity
Identity refers to a clear and stable sense of who one is in the larger society
Sexual identity is the complex of personal qualities, self perceptions, attitudes and values
that guide one‟s sexual behavior
4 key features:
1. Sexual Orientation
Heterosexuals seek emotional sexual relationships with those of the other gender
Homosexuals seek relationships with those of the same gender
Bisexuals seek relationships with members of both genders
Transgendered are those whose appearance and/or behaviors do not conform to traditional
gender roles
2. Body Image
How you see yourself physically
A positive body image is correlated with greater sexual activity
3. Sexual Values and Ethics
All cultures impose constraints on how people are expected to behave sexually
That certain things are right and wrong, the nature depends on gender, race, etc.
4. Erotic Preferences
People still differ in what they find enjoyable
Erotic preferences encompass your attitudes about self-stimulation, oral sex, intercourse, etc.
Physiological Influences
Hormones play an important role in the development of a fetus that is either a male or a
female, this process is called sexual differentiation
Third month of prenatal development: hormonal secretions begin to produce by male and
female gonads the sex glands. In males, testes produce androgens principle class of
male sex hormones. In females, ovaries produce estrogens - principal class of female sex
hormones. (Both classes present in both genders, just in difference proportions)
Adolescents attain reproductive capacity as hormonal changes trigger the maturation of
primary sex characteristics (sex organs). Hormonal shifts also regulate the development of
secondary sex characteristics (physical features that distinguish genders but not directly
involved with reproduction).
Androgen levels are related to sexual motivation in BOTH men and women, although effect
is less strong in women.
High levels of testosterone in both males and females correlates with high sexual activity.

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Estrogen levels in women do not correlate well with sexual interest
Physiological factors (hormones) influence sexual anatomy (differentiation, maturation)
much more than they influence sexual activity.
Psychosocial Influences
Sexual identity is shaped by
Families: adolescents who feel close to their parents are likely to adopt sexual
attitudes similar to their parents‟ and to limit or delay sexual activities
Peers: leading source of relationship and health info. Adolescents‟ sexual attitudes
and behavior are positively associated with their perceptions of their friends‟ sexual
attitudes and behavior
Schools: “abstinence only” programs do not deter adolescents from engaging in sex,
do not delay first intercourse, and do not reduce the number of sexual partners. In
contrast, “comprehensive programs” result in increased use of contraception and
reduced pregnancies.
Media: TV portrayals of sexual behavior can influence adolescents‟ beliefs about
sexual practices. Hearing talk about casual sex has same effect as viewing permissive
sexual behavior.
Gender Difference in Sexual Socialization
Men and women socialized differently about sexual matters, 5 key differences (all but 1 hold
for both gay and straight)
Men have more interest in sex
Connection b/w sex and intimacy is more important for women
Aggression is more often linked to sexuality for men
Women‟s sexuality is more easily shaped by cultural and situational factors
Among heterosexuals, men typically take lead in initiating sex, women serve as gate
keepers determining whether and when they engage in sexual activities.
Sexual socialization takes longer for females b/c women usually have more emotional
baggage connected with sex than men do (factor= fear of pregnancy, girls hear negative
messages about sex and men from mothers, siblings, third: develop negative associations
about their genitals and sex, fourth: sexual guilt).
Because both members of same gender couples have been socialized similarly, less likely
than straight couples to have compatibility problems.
25% of respondents of a survey have had an in person meeting for a date/sexual experience
with someone whom they had met online more women than men use online dating sites

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Sexual Orientation
Freud believed that homosexuality came from an unresolved Oedipus complex (instead of
identifying with same gender parent, child continues to identify with parent of other gender).
Learning theorists think homosexuality results from early negative heterosexual encounters or
early positive homosexual experiences.
Sociologists propose that homosexuality develops b/c of poor relationships with same gender
peers
There is no evidence that parents sexual orientation is linked to that of their children
Research suggests that hormonal secretions during prenatal development may shape sexual
development, organize the brain in a lasting manner, and influence subsequent sexual
orientation
ATTITUDES towards homosexuality: higher levels of sexual prejudice are associated with being
older, male, less educated, and living in South or Midwest. Sexual prejudice is correlated with
psychological factors such as authoritarianism, traditional gender role attitudes and
conservative religious beliefs
Sexual identity development: The quality of a parents relationship with child prior to them
coming out is best predictor of how they will initially react and adjust.
People are more likely to disclose their sexual orientation to close heterosexual friends and
siblings than to parents, co workers or employers.
Interaction in Sexual Relationships
Motives for Engaging in Sex
To understand sexual motives, classify as approach and avoidance motives
Approach motives: focus on obtaining positive outcomes by:
o 1) pursuing one‟s own sexual pleasure
o 2) feeling good about yourself
o 3) pleasing one‟s partner
o 4) promoting intimacy in relationship
o 5) expressing love for one‟s partner
Avoidance motives: center on evading negative outcomes:
1) avoiding relationship conflict
2) preventing a partner from becoming upset
3) preventing a partners anger
Sexual encounters based on approach motives are positively associated with personal and
relationship well-being
Women are more likely than men to associate sex with love and romanticize sexual desire
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