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Chapter Final

Final Exam Review Includes chapter summaries for all chapters covered on the final exam, including: 3, 4, 6, 13, 14, 15, & 16 very detailed and organized

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Psychology 2035A/B
Doug Hazlewood

Chapter 13 Development and Expression of Sexuality12132010 71100 PM Becoming a Sexual PersonKey Aspects of Sexual IdentityIdentity refers to a clear and stable sense of who one is in the larger societySexual identity is the complex of personal qualities self perceptions attitudes and values that guide ones sexual behavior4 key features1 Sexual OrientationHeterosexuals seek emotional sexual relationships with those of the other genderHomosexuals seek relationships with those of the same genderBisexuals seek relationships with members of both gendersTransgendered are those whose appearance andor behaviors do not conform to traditional gender roles 2 Body ImageHow you see yourself physicallyA positive body image is correlated with greater sexual activity 3 Sexual Values and EthicsAll cultures impose constraints on how people are expected to behave sexuallyThat certain things are right and wrong the nature depends on gender race etc4 Erotic PreferencesPeople still differ in what they find enjoyableErotic preferences encompass your attitudes about selfstimulation oral sex intercourse etcPhysiological InfluencesHormones play an important role in the development of a fetus that is either a male or a female this process is called sexual differentiationThird month of prenatal development hormonal secretions begin to produce by male and female gonadsthe sex glands In males testes produce androgensprinciple class of male sex hormones In females ovaries produce estrogens principal class of female sex hormones Both classes present in both genders just in difference proportionsAdolescents attain reproductive capacity as hormonal changes trigger the maturation of primary sex characteristics sex organs Hormonal shifts also regulate the development of secondary sex characteristics physical features that distinguish genders but not directly involved with reproductionAndrogen levels are related to sexual motivation in BOTH men and women although effect is less strong in women High levels of testosterone in both males and females correlates with high sexual activity Estrogen levels in women do not correlate well with sexual interestPhysiological factors hormones influence sexual anatomy differentiation maturation much more than they influence sexual activity Psychosocial InfluencesSexual identity is shaped byFamilies adolescents who feel close to their parents are likely to adopt sexual attitudes similar to their parents and to limit or delay sexual activitiesPeers leading source of relationship and health info Adolescents sexual attitudes and behavior are positively associated with their perceptions of their friends sexual attitudes and behaviorSchools abstinence only programs do not deter adolescents from engaging in sex do not delay first intercourse and do not reduce the number of sexual partners In contrast comprehensive programs result in increased use of contraception and reduced pregnancies Media TV portrayals of sexual behavior can influence adolescents beliefs about sexual practices Hearing talk about casual sex has same effect as viewing permissive sexual behaviorGender Difference in Sexual SocializationMen and women socialized differently about sexual matters 5 key differences all but 1 hold for both gay and straightMen have more interest in sexConnection bw sex and intimacy is more important for womenAggression is more often linked to sexuality for men Womens sexuality is more easily shaped by cultural and situational factorsAmong heterosexuals men typically take lead in initiating sex women serve as gate keepers determining whether and when they engage in sexual activitiesSexual socialization takes longer for females bc women usually have more emotional baggage connected with sex than men do factor fear of pregnancy girls hear negative messages about sex and men from mothers siblings third develop negative associations about their genitals and sex fourth sexual guilt Because both members of same gender couples have been socialized similarly less likely than straight couples to have compatibility problems 25 of respondents of a survey have had an in person meeting for a datesexual experience with someone whom they had met onlinemore women than men use online dating sitesSexual Orientation Freud believed that homosexuality came from an unresolved Oedipus complex instead of identifying with same gender parent child continues to identify with parent of other gender Learning theorists think homosexuality results from early negative heterosexual encounters or early positive homosexual experiencesSociologists propose that homosexuality develops bc of poor relationships with same gender peers There is no evidence that parents sexual orientation is linked to that of their children Research suggests that hormonal secretions during prenatal development may shape sexual development organize the brain in a lasting manner and influence subsequent sexual orientation ATTITUDES towards homosexuality higher levels of sexual prejudice are associated with being older male less educated and living in South or Midwest Sexual prejudice is correlated with psychological factors such as authoritarianism traditional gender role attitudes and conservative religious beliefs Sexual identity development The quality of a parents relationship with child prior to them coming out is best predictor of how they will initially react and adjust People are more likely to disclose their sexual orientation to close heterosexual friends and siblings than to parents co workers or employers Interaction in Sexual Relationships Motives for Engaging in SexTo understand sexual motives classify as approach and avoidance motivesApproach motives focus on obtaining positive outcomes by o 1 pursuing ones own sexual pleasure o 2 feeling good about yourself o 3 pleasing ones partner o 4 promoting intimacy in relationship o 5 expressing love for ones partnerAvoidance motives center on evading negative outcomes1 avoiding relationship conflict2 preventing a partner from becoming upset3 preventing a partners anger Sexual encounters based on approach motives are positively associated with personal and relationship wellbeing Women are more likely than men to associate sex with love and romanticize sexual desire
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