Textbook Notes (362,796)
Canada (158,054)
Psychology (4,729)
Chapter 13

Chapter 13.docx

9 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 2035A/B
Doug Hazlewood

Chapter 13 – Careers and Work Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology: the study of human behavior in the workplace, strived to increase the dignity and performance of workers and the organizations where they labour Choosing a Career  Average person works 8 hours a day, 5 days a week, 50 weeks a year, for 40-45 years  (1) Need a clear grasp of personal characteristics, (2) Need realistic information about potential career, (3) Match potential career with potential characteristics 1. Personal Characteristics  People who exhibit secure attachment and who have a sense of self-efficacy about career-relevant abilities find it easier to make career choices  Intelligence does not predict occupational success – it predicts the likelihood of entering particular occupations  Relationship between intelligence and occupational level holds for men, but ability achievement gap exists for women  Specific aptitudes make a person well suited for certain occupations (creativity, artistic or musical talent)  Social skills (use of teams in organizations) – especially social-emotional or interpersonal intelligence  Interests underlie our motivation for work and job satisfaction  Important to choose occupation that is compatible with our personality 2. Family Influences  Career choices are strongly influenced by family background, jobs that appeal to people tend to be like those of their parents  Key predictor of occupational status is number of years of education, parents and children often attain similar levels of education, and are likely to have similar jobs  Socioeconomic status is related to career attainment, which is mediated by education – parents and teachers can help boost a child‟s career aspirations and opportunities by encouraging them to do well in school  Ethnic differences in aspirations are still found (eg. Chinese and Asian American college students choose more investigative (analytical, intellectual) occupations and are more influenced by parents  Parenting practices – middle class is encouraged to be curious and independent, children in lower class are taught to conform and obey (less opportunity to develop qualities demanded in high status jobs) Researching Job Characteristics Sources of Career Information  Where to get information on jobs that might interest you – Occupational Outlook Handbook (includes job descriptions, education and training requirements, salaries and employment outlooks) Essential Information About Occupations  Nature of the work: duties and responsibilities  Working conditions: pleasant or unpleasant? High pressure or low pressure?  Job entry requirements – note that the jobs you can obtain with a college degree yield higher fay than those than require less education but it does not predict who performs well in a job setting  Ongoing training or education  Potential earnings  Potential status  Opportunities for advancement  Intrinsic job satisfaction (personal satisfaction from job? Allows you to help people, be creative)  Future outlook (projected supply and demand for the area)  Security (stable or will it disappear if there is an economic downturn) Using Psychological Tests for Career Decisions Occupational Interest Inventories – measure your interests as they relate to various jobs or careers (eg. Strong Interest Inventory – SII, Self Directed Search (SDS))  Focus more on job satisfaction than job success  How similar your interests are to the typical interests of people in the various occupations  Results may confirm your subjective guesses about your interests or maybe even inspire you to investigate career possibilities that you never thought of before Cautions:  May score high on some occupations that you‟re sure you would hate (by chance) – however, shouldn‟t dismiss other results  Don‟t let the test make career decisions for you (only for consideration)  Most occupational interest inventories have a lingering gender bias (women as nurses, men with medicine or engineering)  Ethnic concerns not as big as gender concerns Taking Important Considerations Into Account 1. You have the potential for success in a variety of occupations  Foolish to believe that only one job fits you perfectly 2. Be cautious about choosing a career solely on the basis of salary  Meaning and purpose leads to happiness and well being  Mismatch can result in boredom, frustration, unhappiness and negative feelings 3. There are limits on your career options  Factors beyond your control, including fluctuations in the economy and job market 4. Career choice is a developmental process that extends throughout life  Series of decisions  Average person will have 10 jobs over the course of their lives  Middle aged people underestimate options given to them and miss opportunities, but these choices are not limited to youth 5. Some career decisions are not easily undone  Once you invest time and money into a career path it is not easy to change, especially if you have family responsibilities Models of Career Choice and Development Holland‟s Person-Environment Fit Model  Career choice is related to an individual‟s personality characteristics (must be relatively stable over time)  People are classified into one of six personality types, called personal orientations  Occupations can be classified into six ideal work environments  People flourish when their work environment is congruent with their abilities, interests and self beliefs  Work environment can be a job or occupation, field of study, educational program, college or university, leisure activity or culture  RIASIC theory (Personality Types) p. 412  Realistic – concrete and physical tasks that require mechanical skills, lack social skills [machine operator, pilot, engineer]  Investigative – wants to solve intellectual, scientific and mathematic problems [marine biologist, computer programmer, dentist]  Artistic – prefers unsystematic tasks, imaginative, expressive and independent [designer, actor, musician]  Social – prefers educational, helping and religious careers [nurse, teacher, minister]  Enterprising – values political and economic achievements, enjoys leadership and power [realtor, politician]  Conventional – prefers orderly, systematic, concrete tasks with verbal and mathematic data, conformist [banker, accountant]  Ideal types so nobody will fit perfectly in one, most people are a combination of two or three Super‟s Developmental Model (p. 413)  Occupational development is a process that begins in childhood, unfolds gradually across most of the lifespan, and ends in retirement  Self concept is crucial in this process – express changing views of yourself 1. Growth Stage  Childhood – youngsters fantasize about exotic jobs they would enjoy  Oblivious to realistic considerations  Aspirations vary widely due to external factors (home environment) 2. Exploration Stage  Pressures from parents, teachers and peers develop a general career direction by the end of high school  Unrewarding early experiences such as part time jobs may motivate individuals to shift to another occupation 3. Establishment Stage  Career commitment is strengthened and job moves will take place within occupation area  Demonstrate ability to function effectively and use previously acquired skills 4. Maintenance Stage  Mid 40‟s  Worried more about retaining their status rather than improving it  Primary goal is to protect their security, power, advantages and perks  Shift energy away and attention away from work in favor of family or leisure activities 5. Decline Stage  Deceleration – decline in work activity  Begin around age 65  Since baby boom created oversupply of over supplied labour, it has created pressures that promote early retirement  People experiencing economic trouble may not begin deceleration until age 70  Retirement brings work to a halt – some people look forward to it, some people are apprehensive  Problems with this theory is that it people will remain in the same career all of their working lives  The reality is that we will have many career changes and it is incompatible with Super‟s assumptions  Career maturity is correlated with self-esteem and self-efficacy Women‟s Career Development  59% of adult women are in the workforce  Odds that a woman will work outside the home during her adult life are greater than 90%  In the last 50 years, women‟s employment has had a positive effect on the economy  Most women still subordinate their career goals to their husbands, even if they‟re academically gifted (because they‟re actually dumb bitches)  Married women have less control over their careers  High divorce rate (45%) means many women will have to provide for themselves  After a divorce, a woman‟s standard of living drops 27%  Men‟s career paths are continuous, women‟s are discontinuous (more likely to interrupt their careers to concentrate on family)  Women are having fewer children and coming back to work quicker  Women whose spouses earn income levels in the top and bottom 20% have the lowest workforce participation The Changing World of Work Workplace Trends Work – an activity that produces something of value for others 1. Technology is changing the nature of work  Eliminating many jobs, demands that employees are more skilled  Constantly upgrading technology skills  Allow people to work at home and communicate with others in distant offices and while travelling  Telecommuting – working at home while being electronically connected to the office (47% of businesses) – higher job satisfaction  Computer driven materials require workers to design, manufacture and service them 2. New work attitudes are required  Today workers only have job security if they can add value to the company  Workers must be more active  Job success – self
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 2035A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.