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Chapter 11

Psychology 2035- Gender and Behaviour- Chapter 11

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Western University
Psychology 2035A/B
Doug Hazlewood

Chapter 11Gender and BehaviourDr Summers president of Harvard focused remarks to issue of womens underrepresentation intenured positions in science and engineering at top universitiesAcknowledged differences in socialization and patterns of discrimination between men and womenRanked innate gender differences in mathematical and scientific ability as having greater importancein explaining the gender disparitySystematic differences in variability in different populationsCombination of the expectations for high powered jobs and the differing variances probablyexplains a fair amount of this problemLed to summers resignation as presidentGender StereotypesPrefer gender refers to malefemale differences that are learned sex designate biologically baseddifferences between males and femalesGender the state of being male or femaleSex sexual behaviourGender says nothing about the causes of behaviourGender Identity an individuals perception of himself or herself as a male or femaleGender Stereotypes Widely held and often inaccurate beliefs about males and females abilitiespersonality traits and social behaviourBeliefs about typical attributes of men and women are widely sharedGender stereotypes have remained quite stable since 70s especially for menStereotyped attributes for males generally reflect the quality of Instrumentality anorientation toward action and accomplishmentWomen expressiveness anorientation toward emotion and relationshipsVariability also occurs not everyone fits those characteristicsBoundaries between male and female stereotypes have become less rigidmale femalestereotypes were seen as separate and distinct but now gender is a continuum as opposedto a dichotomyTraditional male stereotyped is more complimentary than the conventional femalestereotype1Androcentrism belief that man is the normMasc is associated with higher overall status and competenceHegarty and Buechel388 articles on gender differences from journalsGender differences were reported in terms of women being different as opposed to menMen are the norm from which women deviatedGender Differences Actual disparities in behaviour between males and females based on researchobservationsGender Roles Culturally defined expectations about appropriate behaviour for males and femalesGenderrole identity A persons identification with the traits regarded as masculine or feminineones sense of being masc or femSexual Orientation A persons preference for sexual partners of the other gender heterosexual thesame gender homosexual or both bisexualGender Differences and SimilaritiesMetaanalysis combines the statistical results of many studies of the same question yielding anestimate of the size and consistency of variables effectsClarifies the body of research of gender and behaviourAllows researchers to assess overall trends across all previous studies of how gender is related toie math abilitiesHydeGender Similarities Hypothesis46 meta analysesMen and women are similar on most psychological variablesSmall differences if anyOverinflated claims of gender differences have costs associated with them forworkplacerelationshipsCritics of hypothesisOmits several important variables from her review and methodological limitations led her tounderestimate true gender differencesCognitive AbilitiesGender differences have not been found in overall intelligence not specific skills thoughVerbal SkillsVocabulary reading writing spelling grammar abilitiesGirlswomen have edge on verbal areaGender differences are small regardlessGirls usually start speaking a little earlier have larger vocabularies better reading scores areverbally fluentBoys seem better on verbal analogies34 times more likely to be stutterers510 times more likely than girls to be dyslexicOverlap between males and females in verbal abilities is much greater than the gap between theMathematical AbilitiesPerforming computations and solving word and story problemsSmall gender differences favouring malesNo such differences in elementary schoolsMeta analysis 500 000 students from 69 countriesmales and females differ very little even thoughmales have more of a positive attitude towards mathGirls from countries where gender equality if more prevalent perform higherMath problem solving boys outperform girls when they reach high schoolBoys take more high school math coursesAlso outperform females in math ability distributionMath test SATboys outnumber girls 17 to 1 in group scoring above 700Spatial AbilitiesCognitive area receiving and mentally manipulating shapes and figuresMales outperform femalesEspecially mental rotations in three dimensions
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