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Chapter 5

Psychology 2035- Part of Chapter 5 and 14 Notes

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Psychology 2035A/B
Doug Hazlewood

Chapter 5 138147Psychology and Physical Health Peoples health is more likely to be compromised by chronic diseasesconditions thatdevelop across many yearso Not by contagious diseasesthose caused by specific infectious agents measlesflu tuberculosis Lifestyle plays a much larger role in the development of chronic diseases than they doin contagious diseases Three leading chronic diseases exist todayo Heart diseaseo Cancero Strokeo All account for 60 of all deaths in the US Traditional view of illnesso Purely biological phenomenon produced by an infectious agent or some internalphysical breakdown in the body Shifting patterns have rocked foundation of this biological modelo New model Bio psychosocial modelholds that physical illness is caused by acomplex interaction of biological psychological and sociocultural factorso Biological Factors infectious agents environmental toxins genetic predispositionphysiological reactivity immune responseo Social system factors social support health education pollution controlsanitation medical careo Psychological behavioural factors reactions to illness health related habitspersonality coping tactics stresso Biological factors are still important but this model implies that biological factorsoperate in a psychosocial context that can also be highly influentialo Medical and psychological professionals that adhere to biopsychosocial modelattend to additional factors ie cultural values affect the way individuals think anddeal with chronic illnesso There is a growing recognition that psychological factors influence physical healthLeads to the development of a new speciality within psychologyHealth Psychology concerned with how psychological factors relate to thepromotion and maintenance of health and with causation prevention andtreatment of illnessStress Personality and Illness Personas personality demeanour can influence his or her physical health Personality made up of unique grouping of behavioural traits that a person exhibitsconsistently across situations Individual will more likely develop an illness and perhaps die earliero chronically grumpy hostile towards others routinely frustratedo rather than someone who is open friendly and leads a balanced life Heart disease leading cause of death in NAPersonality Emotions and Heart disease Accounts for nearly 27 of deaths in US each yearCoronary Heart Disease Results from reduction in blood flow through the coronary arteries Coronary arteries supple heart with blood Is about 90 of heart related deathsThe principle cause of coronary Heart Disease is Atherosclerosis Is a gradual narrowing of the coronary arterieso Caused by buildup of fatty deposits and other debris on inner walls It progresses slowly over the yearsAtherosclerosis a narrowing of the coronary arteries is the principal cause of coronarydiseaseThe narrowed arteries from the Atherosclerosis can cause situations where the heart isdeprived of adequate blood flow causing a condition known as myocardial ischemia This may be accompanied by brief chest pain anginaWhat happens if a coronary artery is blocked completely Abrupt interruption of blood flow can produce a fullfledged heart attack myocardialinfarctionSome established risk factors for coronary heart disease Smoking diabetes high cholesterol levels high blood pressure Smoking and diabetes higher risk levels for women than menPublic perception that cardiovascular kill women more than menActuality kill women just as much as men But diseases tend to emerge in women about 10 years later than in men When women reach menopause 50 they have higher risk of disease than menRecent discovery Inflammation is a contribution to Atherosclerosis Possibly Inflammation plays role in initiation and progression of Atherosclerosis Also plays a role in acute complications that trigger heart attacks Related to inflammation stress and depression Researchers have found a marker Creactive protein CRP in the bloodo Can help physicians estimate individual coronary risk more accurately than possiblebeforeCombined levels of CRP and cholesterol appear to be related to coronary risk CRP levels are also predictive of the development of high blood pressure suggests thathypertensionmay be a part of inflammatory syndromeThe relationship of Cholesterol and inflammation to coronary risk Levels of CRP in the blood is a useful index of the inflammation that contributes toAtherosclerosis Increasing CRP levels and increasing cholesterol levels combine to elevatecardiovascular risk for a heart attack or a strokeHostility and Coronary Risk Investigating the causes of coronary disease
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